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Frontiers of Medicine >> 2022, Volume 16, Issue 1 doi: 10.1007/s11684-021-0900-3

Decellularized extracellular matrix mediates tissue construction and regeneration

Available online: 2022-02-15

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Contributing to organ formation and tissue regeneration, extracellular matrix (ECM) constituents provide tissue with three-dimensional (3D) structural integrity and cellular-function regulation. Containing the crucial traits of the cellular microenvironment, ECM substitutes mediate cell–matrix interactions to prompt stem-cell proliferation and differentiation for 3D organoid construction in vitro or tissue regeneration in vivo. However, these ECMs are often applied generically and have yet to be extensively developed for specific cell types in 3D cultures. Cultured cells also produce rich ECM, particularly stromal cells. Cellular ECM improves 3D culture development in vitro and tissue remodeling during wound healing after implantation into the host as well. Gaining better insight into ECM derived from either tissue or cells that regulate 3D tissue reconstruction or organ regeneration helps us to select, produce, and implant the most suitable ECM and thus promote 3D organoid culture and tissue remodeling for in vivo regeneration. Overall, the decellularization methodologies and tissue/cell-derived ECM as scaffolds or cellular-growth supplements used in cell propagation and differentiation for 3D tissue culture in vitro are discussed. Moreover, current preclinical applications by which ECM components modulate the wound-healing process are reviewed.

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