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Active-reactive power scheduling of integrated electricity-gas network with multi-microgrids

《能源前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第2期   页码 251-265 doi: 10.1007/s11708-022-0857-1

摘要: Advances in natural gas-fired technologies have deepened the coupling between electricity and gas networks, promoting the development of the integrated electricity-gas network (IEGN) and strengthening the interaction between the active-reactive power flow in the power distribution network (PDN) and the natural gas flow in the gas distribution network (GDN). This paper proposes a day-ahead active-reactive power scheduling model for the IEGN with multi-microgrids (MMGs) to minimize the total operating cost. Through the tight coupling relationship between the subsystems of the IEGN, the potentialities of the IEGN with MMGs toward multi-energy cooperative interaction is optimized. Important component models are elaborated in the PDN, GDN, and coupled MMGs. Besides, motivated by the non-negligible impact of the reactive power, optimal inverter dispatch (OID) is considered to optimize the active and reactive power capabilities of the inverters of distributed generators. Further, a second-order cone (SOC) relaxation technology is utilized to transform the proposed active-reactive power scheduling model into a convex optimization problem that the commercial solver can directly solve. A test system consisting of an IEEE-33 test system and a 7-node natural gas network is adopted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheduling method. The results show that the proposed scheduling method can effectively reduce the power losses of the PDN in the IEGN by 9.86%, increase the flexibility of the joint operation of the subsystems of the IEGN, reduce the total operation costs by $32.20, and effectively enhance the operation economy of the IEGN.

关键词: combined cooling     heating     and power (CCHP)     integrated energy systems (IES)     natural gas     power distribution system     gas distribution system    

冷热电联产系统中气冷式微型透平机的发电耗水、空气污染物排放及成本影响:亚特兰大地区案例研究 Article

Jean-Ann James, Valerie M. Thomas, Arka Pandit, Duo Li, John C. Crittenden

《工程(英文)》 2016年 第2卷 第4期   页码 470-480 doi: 10.1016/J.ENG.2016.04.008

摘要: 冷热电联产(CCHP) 系统可以同时供暖、制冷和发电,具有提高城市或城市区域能源发电效率的潜力。对于大多数采用或不采用净计量策略的建筑类型来说,以满足每小时热需求去运行CCHP 系统均可减少CO2 的排放量。该系统能否对这些建筑类型产生经济效益,主要取决于天然气的价格、净计量策略的采用和假定的CCHP 系统的成本结构。当建筑物采用净计量策略并且CCHP 系统是以满足建筑物每年的最大热需求而运行时,CCHP 系统的发电耗水量和NOx 的排放量均有最大限度的减少,尽管此时该运行情景会增加温室气体排放和发电成本CCHP 系统对中型办公楼、大型办公楼和多户型住宅建筑更经济、实用。

关键词: 冷热电联产(CCHP    气冷式微型透平机     分布式能源发电     发电耗水     净计量    

UPFC setting to avoid active power flow loop considering wind power uncertainty

Shenghu LI, Ting WANG

《能源前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第1期   页码 165-175 doi: 10.1007/s11708-020-0686-z

摘要: The active power loop flow (APLF) may be caused by impropriate network configuration, impropriate parameter settings, and/or stochastic bus powers. The power flow controllers, e.g., the unified power flow controller (UPFC), may be the reason and the solution to the loop flows. In this paper, the critical existence condition of the APLF is newly integrated into the simultaneous power flow model for the system and UPFC. Compared with the existing method of alternatively solving the simultaneous power flow and sensitivity-based approaching to the critical existing condition, the integrated power flow needs less iterations and calculation time. Besides, with wind power fluctuation, the interval power flow (IPF) is introduced into the integrated power flow, and solved with the affine Krawcyzk iteration to make sure that the range of active power setting of the UPFC not yielding the APLF. Compared with Monte Carlo simulation, the IPF has the similar accuracy but less time.

关键词: active power loop flow (APLF)     unified power flow controller (UPFC)     wind power uncertainty     interval power flow (IPF)    

Possible role of power-to-heat and power-to-gas as flexible loads in German medium voltage networks

Mark KUPRAT, Martin BENDIG, Klaus PFEIFFER

《能源前沿(英文)》 2017年 第11卷 第2期   页码 135-145 doi: 10.1007/s11708-017-0472-8

摘要: Germany’s energy transition triggered a rapid and unilateral growth of renewable energy sources (RES) in the electricity sector. With increasing shares of intermittent RES, overcapacities during periods of strong wind and photovoltaic electricity generation occur. In the face of insufficient transmission capacities, due to an inhibited network extension, the electricity generation has to be curtailed. This curtailment of RES leads to economic losses and could be avoided through flexible loads. As an option to cope with those problems, the technologies of power-to-gas (PtG) and power-to-heat (PtH) are presented in this paper. First, the alkaline electrolyzer (AEL), polymer electrolyte membrane electrolyzer (PEMEL), and solid oxide electrolyzer cell (SOEC) are investigated regarding their operational parameters. Second, the electric boiler, electrode heating boiler, and heat pumps are considered. Ultimately, the network-supporting abilities and the potential to provide ancillary services, such as control power, load sequence operation, cold start and part load capability, are compared among one another.

关键词: power-to-gas     power-to-heat     flexible loads     ancillary services     coherent energy systems    

Evaluation of the power-generation capacity of wearable thermoelectric power generator

Yang YANG, Jing LIU,

《能源前沿(英文)》 2010年 第4卷 第3期   页码 346-357 doi: 10.1007/s11708-010-0112-z

摘要: Employing thermoelectric generators (TEGs) to gather heat dissipating from the human body through the skin surface is a promising way to supply electronic power to wearable and pocket electronics. The uniqueness of this method lies in its direct utilization of the temperature difference between the environment and the human body, and complete elimination of power maintenance problems. However, most of the previous investigations on thermal energy harvesters are confined to the TEG and electronic system themselves because of the low quality of human energy. We evaluate the energy generation capacity of a wearable TEG subject to various conditions based on biological heat transfer theory. Through numerical simulation and corresponding parametric studies, we find that the temperature distribution in the thermopiles affects the criterion of the voltage output, suggesting that the temperature difference in a single point can be adopted as the criterion for uniform temperature distribution. However, the criterion has to be shifted to the sum of temperature difference on each thermocouple when the temperature distribution is inconsistent. In addition, the performance of the thermal energy harvester can be easily influenced by environmental conditions, as well as the physiological state and physical characteristics of the human body. To further validate the calculation results for the wearable TEG, a series of conceptual experiments are performed on a number of typical cases. The numerical simulation provides a good overview of the electricity generation capability of the TEG, which may prove useful in the design of future thermal energy harvesters.

关键词: thermal energy harvester     thermoelectric generator     biological heat transfer     power generating capacity    

Renewable power for China: Past, present, and future

Eric MARTINOT

《能源前沿(英文)》 2010年 第4卷 第3期   页码 287-294 doi: 10.1007/s11708-010-0120-z

摘要: This paper briefly examines the history, status, policy situation, development issues, and prospects for key renewable power technologies in China. The country has become a global leader in wind turbine and solar photovoltaic (PV) production, and leads the world in total power capacity from renewable energy. Policy frameworks have matured and evolved since the landmark 2005 Renewable Energy Law, updated in 2009. China’s 2020 renewable energy target is similar to that of the EU. However, China continues to face many challenges in technology development, grid-integration, and policy frameworks. These include training, research and development, wind turbine operating experience and performance, transmission constraints, grid interconnection time lags, resource assessments, power grid integration on large scales, and continued policy development and adjustment. Wind and solar PV targets for 2020 will likely be satisfied early, although domestic demand for solar PV remains weak and the pathways toward incorporating distributed and building-integrated solar PV are uncertain. Prospects for biomass power are limited by resource constraints. Other technologies such as concentrating solar thermal power, ocean energy, and electricity storage require greater attention.

关键词: renewable energy     wind power     solar power     sustainable energy policy     green industry    

Carbon emission impact on the operation of virtual power plant with combined heat and power system

Yu-hang XIA,Jun-yong LIU,Zheng-wen HUANG,Xu ZHANG

《信息与电子工程前沿(英文)》 2016年 第17卷 第5期   页码 479-488 doi: 10.1631/FITEE.1500467

摘要: A virtual power plant (VPP) can realize the aggregation of distributed generation in a certain region, and represent distributed generation to participate in the power market of the main grid. With the expansion of VPPs and ever-growing heat demand of consumers, managing the effect of fluctuations in the amount of available renewable resources on the operation of VPPs and maintaining an economical supply of electric power and heat energy to users have been important issues. This paper proposes the allocation of an electric boiler to realize wind power directly converted for supplying heat, which can not only overcome the limitation of heat output from a combined heat and power (CHP) unit, but also reduce carbon emissions from a VPP. After the electric boiler is considered in the VPP operation model of the combined heat and power system, a multi-objective model is built, which includes the costs of carbon emissions, total operation of the VPP and the electricity traded between the VPP and the main grid. The model is solved by the CPLEX package using the fuzzy membership function in Matlab, and a case study is presented. The power output of each unit in the case study is analyzed under four scenarios. The results show that after carbon emission is taken into account, the output of low carbon units is significantly increased, and the allocation of an electric boiler can facilitate the maximum absorption of renewable energy, which also reduces carbon emissions from the VPP.

关键词: Virtual power plant (VPP)     Carbon emissions     Electric boiler     Wind power     Combined heat and power (CHP)    

制造质量强国战略

“制造质量强国战略研究”课题组

《中国工程科学》 2015年 第17卷 第7期   页码 24-28

摘要:

本文系统论述了实现制造质量强国战略的意义,分析了我国制造业质量发展的现状,借鉴主要工业国家质量发展经验并针对中国国情,提出了到2025年制造质量强国的战略目标、战略任务、战略对策和政策建议。

关键词: 制造强国     质量     战略    

Will Germany move into a situation with unsecured power supply?

Harald SCHWARZ

《能源前沿(英文)》 2019年 第13卷 第3期   页码 551-570 doi: 10.1007/s11708-019-0641-z

摘要: Together with a huge number of other countries, Germany signed the Paris Agreements in 2015 to prevent global temperature increase above 2°C. Within this agreement, all countries defined their own national contributions to CO reduction. Since that, it was visible that CO emissions in Germany decreased, but not so fast than proposed in this German nationally determined contribution to the Paris Agreement. Due to increasing traffic, CO emissions from this mobility sector increased and CO emission from German power generation is nearly constant for the past 20 years, even a renewable generation capacity of 112 GW was built up in 2017, which is much higher than the peak load of 84 GW in Germany. That is why the German National Government has implemented a commission (often called “The German Coal Commission”) to propose a time line: how Germany can move out of coal-fired power stations. This “Coal Commission” started its work in the late spring of 2018 and handed over its final report with 336 pages to the government on January 26th, 2019. Within this report the following proposals were made: ① Until 2022: Due to a former decision of the German Government, the actual remaining nuclear power generation capacity of about 10 GW has to be switched off in 2022. Besides, the “Coal Commission” proposed to switch off additionally in total 12.5 GW of both, hard coal and lignite-fired power plants, so that Germany should reduce its conventional generation capacity by 22.5 GW in 2022. ② Until 2030: Another 13 GW of German hard coal or lignite-fired power plants should be switched off. ③ Until 2038: The final 17 GW of German hard coal or lignite-fired power plants should be switched off until 2038 latest. Unfortunately the “Coal Commission” has not investigated the relevant technical parameter to ensure a secured electric power supply, based on German’s own national resources. Because German Energy Revolution mainly is based on wind energy and photovoltaic, this paper will describe the negligible contribution of these sources to the secured generation capacity, which will be needed for a reliable power supply. In addition, it will discuss several technical options to integrate wind energy and photovoltaic into a secured power supply system with an overall reduced CO emission.

关键词: CO2 reduction     mobility sector     renewable generation     coal commission     secured power generation capacity     reliable power supply     power-to-gas     power-to-heat    

A comprehensive review of wind power based power system frequency regulation

《能源前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第5期   页码 611-634 doi: 10.1007/s11708-023-0876-6

摘要: Wind power (WP) is considered as one of the main renewable energy sources (RESs) for future low-carbon and high-cost-efficient power system. However, its low inertia characteristic may threaten the system frequency stability of the power system with a high penetration of WP generation. Thus, the capability of WP participating in the system frequency regulation has become a research hotspot. In this paper, the impact of WP on power system frequency stability is initially presented. In addition, various existing control strategies of WP participating in frequency regulation are reviewed from the wind turbine (WT) level to the wind farm (WF) level, and their performances are compared in terms of operating principles and practical applications. The pros and cons of each control strategy are also discussed. Moreover, the WP combing with energy storage system (ESS) for system frequency regulation is explored. Furthermore, the prospects, future challenges, and solutions of WP participating in power system frequency regulation are summarized.

关键词: frequency regulation strategies     wind turbine generators     grid-forming control     model predictive control     energy storage system    

Optimal operation of integrated energy system including power thermal and gas subsystems

《能源前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第1期   页码 105-120 doi: 10.1007/s11708-022-0814-z

摘要: As a form of hybrid multi-energy systems, the integrated energy system contains different forms of energy such as power, thermal, and gas which meet the load of various energy forms. Focusing mainly on model building and optimal operation of the integrated energy system, in this paper, the dist-flow method is applied to quickly calculate the power flow and the gas system model is built by the analogy of the power system model. In addition, the piecewise linearization method is applied to solve the quadratic Weymouth gas flow equation, and the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) method is applied to narrow the optimal results of each subsystem at the coupling point. The entire system reaches its optimal operation through multiple iterations. The power-thermal-gas integrated energy system used in the case study includes an IEEE-33 bus power system, a Belgian 20 node natural gas system, and a six node thermal system. Simulation-based calculations and comparison of the results under different scenarios prove that the power-thermal-gas integrated energy system enhances the flexibility and stability of the system as well as reducing system operating costs to some extent.

关键词: integrated energy system     power-to-gas     dist-flow     piecewise linearization     alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM)    

评价企业营销力的一个新方法

徐丽娟

《中国工程科学》 2006年 第8卷 第6期   页码 100-102

摘要:

市场的可拓性关系着企业市场营销工作的效率和效果,可拓营销力是企业在市场竞争过程中通过营销活动形成的获得消费者认同的能力。这种认同可能会直接带来销售额、利润,也有可能只是使消费者产生了对企业或者产品、品牌的兴趣,但是一定会为未来的企业销售活动打好良好的商誉基础。企业可拓营销力在企业发展中具有重要作用,文章基于企业营销活动的市场影响力讨论了企业可拓营销力指数,并为其科学评价提供了一个新的方法。

关键词: 营销力     可拓力     市场影响力     可拓营销力指数    

Availability growth models and verification of power equipment

Jinyuan SHI, Jiamin XU

《能源前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第2期   页码 529-538 doi: 10.1007/s11708-019-0624-0

摘要: The general availability growth models for large scale complicated repairable system such as electric generating units, power station auxiliaries, and transmission and distribution installations are presented. The calculation formulas for the maintenance coefficient, mathematical expressions for general availability growth models, ways for estimating, and fitting on checking the parameters of the model are introduced. Availability growth models for electric generating units, power station auxiliaries, and transmission and distribution installations are given together with verification examples for availability growth models of 320–1000 MW nuclear power units and 1000 MW thermal power units, 200–1000 MW power station auxiliaries, and 220–500 kV transmission and distribution installations. The verification results for operation availability data show that the maintenance coefficients for electric generating units, power station auxiliaries, transmission and distribution installations conform to the power function, and general availability growth models conform to rules of availability growth tendency of power equipment.

关键词: repairable system     power equipment     electric generating unit     power station auxiliary     transmission and distribution installation     reliability     availability     availability growth model    

Improved resilience measure for component recovery priority in power grids

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第4期   页码 545-556 doi: 10.1007/s42524-021-0161-5

摘要: Given the complexity of power grids, the failure of any component may cause large-scale economic losses. Consequently, the quick recovery of power grids after disasters has become a new research direction. Considering the severity of power grid disasters, an improved power grid resilience measure and its corresponding importance measures are proposed. The recovery priority of failed components after a disaster is determined according to the influence of the failed components on the power grid resilience. Finally, based on the data from the 2019 Power Yearbook of each city in Shandong Province, China, the power grid resilience after a disaster is analyzed for two situations, namely, partial components failure and failure of all components. Result shows that the recovery priorities of components with different importance measures vary. The resilience evaluations under different repair conditions prove the feasibility of the proposed method.

关键词: resilience measure     power grid     importance measure     component recovery    

Power fluctuation and power loss of wind turbines due to wind shear and tower shadow

Binrong WEN, Sha WEI, Kexiang WEI, Wenxian YANG, Zhike PENG, Fulei CHU

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第12卷 第3期   页码 321-332 doi: 10.1007/s11465-017-0434-1

摘要:

The magnitude and stability of power output are two key indices of wind turbines. This study investigates the effects of wind shear and tower shadow on power output in terms of power fluctuation and power loss to estimate the capacity and quality of the power generated by a wind turbine. First, wind speed models, particularly the wind shear model and the tower shadow model, are described in detail. The widely accepted tower shadow model is modified in view of the cone-shaped towers of modern large-scale wind turbines. Power fluctuation and power loss due to wind shear and tower shadow are analyzed by performing theoretical calculations and case analysis within the framework of a modified version of blade element momentum theory. Results indicate that power fluctuation is mainly caused by tower shadow, whereas power loss is primarily induced by wind shear. Under steady wind conditions, power loss can be divided into wind farm loss and rotor loss. Wind farm loss is constant at 3α(3α−1)R2/(8H2). By contrast, rotor loss is strongly influenced by the wind turbine control strategies and wind speed. That is, when the wind speed is measured in a region where a variable-speed controller works, the rotor loss stabilizes around zero, but when the wind speed is measured in a region where the blade pitch controller works, the rotor loss increases as the wind speed intensifies. The results of this study can serve as a reference for accurate power estimation and strategy development to mitigate the fluctuations in aerodynamic loads and power output due to wind shear and tower shadow.

关键词: wind turbine     wind shear     tower shadow     power fluctuation     power loss    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Active-reactive power scheduling of integrated electricity-gas network with multi-microgrids

期刊论文

冷热电联产系统中气冷式微型透平机的发电耗水、空气污染物排放及成本影响:亚特兰大地区案例研究

Jean-Ann James, Valerie M. Thomas, Arka Pandit, Duo Li, John C. Crittenden

期刊论文

UPFC setting to avoid active power flow loop considering wind power uncertainty

Shenghu LI, Ting WANG

期刊论文

Possible role of power-to-heat and power-to-gas as flexible loads in German medium voltage networks

Mark KUPRAT, Martin BENDIG, Klaus PFEIFFER

期刊论文

Evaluation of the power-generation capacity of wearable thermoelectric power generator

Yang YANG, Jing LIU,

期刊论文

Renewable power for China: Past, present, and future

Eric MARTINOT

期刊论文

Carbon emission impact on the operation of virtual power plant with combined heat and power system

Yu-hang XIA,Jun-yong LIU,Zheng-wen HUANG,Xu ZHANG

期刊论文

制造质量强国战略

“制造质量强国战略研究”课题组

期刊论文

Will Germany move into a situation with unsecured power supply?

Harald SCHWARZ

期刊论文

A comprehensive review of wind power based power system frequency regulation

期刊论文

Optimal operation of integrated energy system including power thermal and gas subsystems

期刊论文

评价企业营销力的一个新方法

徐丽娟

期刊论文

Availability growth models and verification of power equipment

Jinyuan SHI, Jiamin XU

期刊论文

Improved resilience measure for component recovery priority in power grids

期刊论文

Power fluctuation and power loss of wind turbines due to wind shear and tower shadow

Binrong WEN, Sha WEI, Kexiang WEI, Wenxian YANG, Zhike PENG, Fulei CHU

期刊论文