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Identification and assessment of environmental burdens of Chinese copper production from a life cycle

Xiaolong SONG,Jianxin YANG,Bin LU,Bo LI,Guangyuan ZENG

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第8卷 第4期   页码 580-588 doi: 10.1007/s11783-013-0599-8

摘要: The environmental burdens of Chinese copper production have been identified and quantified in the context of typical technologies, materials supplies and environmental emissions by a life cycle approach. Primary and secondary copper production using copper ores and scraps, respectively, were analyzed in detail. The flash and bath smelting approaches and the recycling of copper scraps were selected as representative copper production processes. A quantitative analysis was also conducted to assess the influence of material transport distance in copper production. Life cycle assessment (LCA) results showed that resources depletion and human health contribute significantly to environmental burdens in Chinese copper production. In addition, the secondary copper production has dramatically lower environmental burdens than the primary production. There is no obvious distinction in overall environmental burdens in primary copper production by flash or bath smelting approach. However, resources depletion is lower and the damage to human health is higher for flash smelting approach. Ecosystem quality damage is slight for both approaches. Environmental burdens from the mining stage contribute most in all life cycle stages in primary copper production. In secondary copper production, the electrolytic refining stage dominates. Based on the life cycle assessment results, some suggestions for improving environmental performance were proposed to meet the sustainable development of Chinese copper industry.

关键词: copper production     environmental burden     life cycle assessment     refined copper    

Life cycle carbon emission assessment of a multi-purpose university building: A case study of Sri Lanka

Ramya KUMANAYAKE, Hanbin LUO

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2018年 第5卷 第3期   页码 381-393 doi: 10.15302/J-FEM-2018055

摘要:

Buildings are known to significantly affect the global carbon emissions throughout their life cycle. To mitigate carbon emissions, investigation of the current performance of buildings with regard to energy consumption and carbon emissions is necessary. This paper presents a process-based life cycle assessment methodology for assessing carbon emissions of buildings, using a multi-storey reinforced concrete building in a Sri Lankan university as a case study. The entire cradle-to-grave building life cycle was assessed and the life span of the building was assumed as 50 years. The results provide evidence of the significance of operation and material production stages, which contributed to the total carbon emissions by 63.22% and 31.59% respectively. Between them, the main structural materials, concrete and reinforcement steel made up 61.91% of the total carbon emitted at the material production stage. The life cycle carbon emissions of the building were found to be 31.81 kg·m2 CO2 per year, which is comparable with the values obtained in similar studies found in the literature. In minimizing the life cycle carbon emissions, the importance of identifying control measures for both building operation and material production at the early design stage were emphasized. Although the other life cycle stages only contributed to about 5.19% of the life cycle carbon emissions, they should also receive attention when formulating control strategies. Some of the recommended strategies are introducing energy efficiency measures in building design and operation, using renewable energy for building operation and manufacturing of materials, identifying designs that can save mass material quantities, using alternative materials that are locally available in Sri Lanka and implementing material reuse and recycling. This study is one of the first to undertake a life cycle carbon emissions assessment for a building in the Sri Lankan context, with the hope of facilitating environmentally-friendly buildings and promoting sustainable construction practices in the country.

关键词: carbon emission     life cycle assessment     buildings     sustainable construction     Sri Lanka    

Environmental, social, and economic assessment of energy utilization of crop residue in China

Yueling ZHANG, Junjie LI, Huan LIU, Guangling ZHAO, Yajun TIAN, Kechang XIE

《能源前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第2期   页码 308-319 doi: 10.1007/s11708-020-0696-x

摘要: This paper aims to discuss an environmental, social, and economic analysis of energy utilization of crop residues from life cycle perspectives in China. The methodologies employed to achieve this objective are environmental life cycle assessment (E-LCA), life cycle cost (LCC), and social life cycle assessment (S-LCA). Five scenarios are developed based on the conversion technologies and final bioenergy products. The system boundaries include crop residue collection, transportation, pre-treatment, and conversion process. The replaced amounts of energy are also taken into account in the E-LCA analysis. The functional unit is defined as 1 MJ of energy produced. Eight impact categories are considered besides climate change in E-LCA. The investment capital cost and salary cost are collected and compared in the life cycle of the scenarios. Three stakeholders and several subcategories are considered in the S-LCA analysis defined by UNEP/SETAS guidelines. The results show that the energy utilization of crop residue has carbon emission factors of 0.09–0.18 kg (CO eq per 1 MJ), and presents a net carbon emissions reduction of 0.03–0.15 kg (CO eq per 1 MJ) compared with the convectional electricity or petrol, but the other impacts should be paid attention to in the biomass energy scenarios. The energy utilization of crop residues can bring economic benefit to local communities and the society, but the working conditions of local workers need to be improved in future biomass energy development.

关键词: crop residue     life cycle assessment     life cycle cost     social life cycle assessment     energy production    

Carbon emission analysis of a residential building in China through life cycle assessment

Yin ZHANG,Xuejing ZHENG,Huan ZHANG,Gaofeng CHEN,Xia WANG

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2016年 第10卷 第1期   页码 150-158 doi: 10.1007/s11783-014-0684-7

摘要: In this paper, a quantitative life cycle model for carbon emission accounting was developed based on the life cycle assessment (LCA) theory. A residential building in Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city (Tianjin, China) was selected as a sample, which had been constructed according to the concept of green environmental protection and sustainable development. In the scenario of this research, material production, construction, use and maintenance, and demolition phases were assessed by building carbon emission models. Results show that use and maintenance phase and material production phase are the most significant contributors to the life cycle carbon emissions of a building. We also analyzed some factor influences in LCA, including the thickness of the insulating layer and the length of building service life. The analysis suggest that thicker insulating layer does not necessarily produce less carbon emissions in the light of LCA, and if service life of a building increases, its carbon emissions during the whole life cycle will rise as well but its unit carbon emission will decrease inversely. Some advices on controlling carbon emissions from buildings are also provided.

关键词: life cycle assessment     carbon emission     factor influence analysis    

Life cycle assessment and economic analysis of HFC-134a production from natural gas compared with oil-based

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》   页码 1713-1725 doi: 10.1007/s11705-022-2210-y

摘要: China is the largest producer and consumer of HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) in the world. Coal-based route is mainly adopted to produce HFC-134a, which suffers from large waste and CO2 emissions. Natural gas is a low-carbon and clean energy resource, and no research has been found on the environment and economy of producing HFC-134a from natural gas. In this study, CML 2001 method was used to carry out the life cycle assessment of natural gas (partial oxidation)-based and natural gas (plasma cracking)-based routes (abbreviated as gas(O)-based and gas(P)-based routes, respectively), and their environmental performances were compared with coal-based and oil-based routes. Meanwhile, considering that China is vigorously promoting the transformation of energy structure, and the application of electric heating equipment to replace fossil-based heating equipment in industrial field, which has a great impact on the environmental performance of the production processes, the authors conducted a scenario analysis. The results showed that the gas(O)-based route had the most favourable environmental benefits. However, the gas(P)-based route had the highest potential for reducing environmental burdens, and its environmental benefit was the most favourable in scenario 2050. Additionally, the economic performance of the gas(P)-based route was significantly better than that of gas(O)-based and coal-based routes.

关键词: life cycle assessment     economic performance     HFC-134a     natural gas     oil     coal    

Life cycle assessment of low impact development technologies combined with conventional centralized water

Hyunju Jeong, Osvaldo A. Broesicke, Bob Drew, Duo Li, John C. Crittenden

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2016年 第10卷 第6期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-016-0851-0

摘要: Hybrid system of LID technologies and conventional system was examined. Bioretention areas, rainwater harvesting, and xeriscaping were considered. Technology feasibility was simulated for land use and population density. Synergistic effects of technologies were quantified in defined zones. Uncertainty test was conducted with pedigree matrix and Monte Carlo analysis. Low-impact development (LID) technologies, such as bioretention areas, rooftop rainwater harvesting, and xeriscaping can control stormwater runoff, supply non-potable water, and landscape open space. This study examines a hybrid system (HS) that combines LID technologies with a centralized water system to lessen the burden on a conventional system (CS). CS is defined as the stormwater collection and water supply infrastructure, and the conventional landscaping choices in the City of Atlanta. The study scope is limited to five single-family residential zones (SFZs), classified R-1 through R-5, and four multi-family residential zones (MFZs), classified RG-2 through RG-5. Population density increases from 0.4 (R-1) to 62.2 (RG-5) persons per 1,000 m . We performed a life cycle assessment (LCA) comparison of CS and HS using TRACI 2.1 to simulate impacts on the ecosystem, human health, and natural resources. We quantified the impact of freshwater consumption using the freshwater ecosystem impact (FEI) indicator. Test results indicate that HS has a higher LCA single score than CS in zones with a low population density; however, the difference becomes negligible as population density increases. Incorporating LID in SFZs and MFZs can reduce potable water use by an average of 50% and 25%, respectively; however, water savings are negligible in zones with high population density (i.e., RG-5) due to the diminished surface area per capita available for LID technologies. The results demonstrate that LID technologies effectively reduce outdoor water demand and therefore would be a good choice to decrease the water consumption impact in the City of Atlanta.

关键词: Life cycle assessment (LCA)     Low impact development (LID)     Bioretention area     Rainwater harvesting     Xeriscaping    

the efficiency and environmental impact of two methods of utilizing polyvinyl chloride waste based on lifecycle assessments

WU Yuehui,WANG Guoliang,WANG Zhen,LIU Yi,GU Ping,SUN Dezhi

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第8卷 第3期   页码 451-462 doi: 10.1007/s11783-013-0614-0

摘要: Two processes of utilizing polyvinyl chloride (PVC) waste, an incineration process and a vacuum pyrolysis process, for energy conversion were compared to determine their efficiency and environmental performance. We carried out a life cycle assessment with each of the two processes to evaluate their environmental impact and defined the goals and limits of our remit. As well, we established an inventory of PVC waste from incineration and vacuum pyrolysis based on process analysis, data collection and calculations. The results show that electrical power output per unit mass of PVC waste in the incineration process was twice as high as that of the vacuum pyrolysis process. Incineration had a larger total environmental impact potential than vacuum pyrolysis. The total environmental impact potential of PVC waste from incineration was three times higher than that from vacuum pyrolysis. Incineration of PVC disposed 300 ng·100 kg of dioxins and vacuum pyrolysis 98.19 ng·100 kg of dioxins. As well, we analyzed the data for their uncertainty with results quantified in terms of three uncertainties: basic uncertainty, additional uncertainty, and computational uncertainty. The coefficients of variation of the data were less than 25% and the quality of the inventory data was acceptable with low uncertainty. Both PVC waste disposal processes were of similar quality and their results comparable. The results of our life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) showed considerable reliability of our methodology. Overall, the vacuum pyrolysis process has a number advantages and greater potential for development of PVC disposal than the incineration process.

关键词: polyvinyl chloride waste     utilization     incineration process     vacuum pyrolysis process     life cycle assessment    

Comparison on End-of-Life strategies of WEEE in China based on LCA

Bin Lu, Xiaolong Song, Jianxin Yang, Dong Yang

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第11卷 第5期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-017-0994-7

摘要: As the Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) are upgraded more frequently in China, a large quantity of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) was and will be generated. It becomes an urgent issue to develop and adopt an effective End-of-Life (EoL) strategy for EEE in order to balance the resource recovery and environmental impacts. In an EoL strategy hierarchy for EEE, reuse strategy is usually deemed to be prior to materials recovery and other strategies. But in practice, the advantages and disadvantages of different strategies are always context-dependent. Therefore, main EoL strategies for EEE in China need to be evaluated in environment and resources aspects from the life cycle perspective. In this study, the obsolete refrigerator and Power Supply Unit (PSU) of desktop PC are both taken as the target products. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is applied to assess the environmental impacts of different EoL scenarios in China: Unit Reuse Scenario (URS), Component Reuse Scenario (CRS) and Materials Recovery Scenario (MRS). The LCA results show that the EoL strategies hierarchy is reasonable for the part of computer, but not necessarily suitable for obsolete refrigerators. When the policy makers promote or demote one EoL strategy especially reuse, it is necessary to take subsequent impacts into consideration.

关键词: End-of-Life     Waste electrical and electronic equipment     Life cycle assessment     Reuse    

Environmental and human health impact assessment of major interior wall decorative materials

Bingqing ZHANG, Ruochen ZENG, Xiaodong LI

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2019年 第6卷 第3期   页码 406-415 doi: 10.1007/s42524-019-0025-4

摘要: Despite the growing interest in green products in the interior wall decorative material market, knowledge gaps exist because determining which product is more environmental and user friendly than the others is difficult. This work assesses the environmental and human health profiles of interior latex and wallpaper. Two interior latex products of different raw material ratios and one non-woven wallpaper product are considered. The environmental impact assessment follows life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and applies Building Environmental Performance Analysis System (BEPAS). The human health impact is based on impact-pathway chain and is performed using Building Health Impact Analysis System (BHIAS). The assessment scope, associated emissions, and territorial scope of various emissions are defined to facilitate comparison study of interior wall decorative products. The impacts are classified into 15 categories belonging to three safeguard areas: ecological environment, natural resources, and human health. The impacts of categories are calculated and monetized using willingness to pay (WTP) and disability-adjusted life year (DALY) and summarized as an integrated external cost of environmental and human health impacts. Assessment results reveal that the integrated impact of interior latex is lower than that of non-woven wallpaper, and the interior latex of low quality causes low life cycle integrated impact. The most impacted categories are global warming, respiratory effects, and water consumption. Hotspots of product manufacturing are recognized to promote green product design.

关键词: life cycle assessment     human health impact     integrated assessment     interior wall decorative material     green product    

A comparison of production system life cycle models

Rajesh ATTRI, Sandeep GROVER

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2012年 第7卷 第3期   页码 305-311 doi: 10.1007/s11465-012-0332-5

摘要:

Companies today need to keep up with the rapidly changing market conditions to stay competitive. The main issues in this paper are related to a company’s market and its competitors. The prediction of market behavior is helpful for a manufacturing enterprise to build efficient production systems. However, these predictions are usually not reliable. A production system is required to adapt to changing markets, but such requirement entails higher cost. Hence, analyzing different life cycle models of the production system is necessary. In this paper, different life cycle models of the production system are compared to evaluate the distinctive features and the limitations of each model. Furthermore, the difference between product life cycle and production life cycle is summarized, and the effect of product life cycle on production life cycle is explained. Finally, a production system life cycle model, along with key activities to be performed in each stage, is proposed specifically for the manufacturing sector.

关键词: production system     life cycle     model     product    

PROPOSED INNOVATION REFORM MODEL FOR THE MINERAL NITROGEN FERTILIZER INDUSTRY IN CHINA TO REDUCE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2022468

摘要:

● The carbon footprint of the nitrogen fertilizer chain has decreased significantly over the last decade.

关键词: carbon accounting     life cycle assessment     policy     product structure    

State-of-the-art applications of machine learning in the life cycle of solid waste management

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 doi: 10.1007/s11783-023-1644-x

摘要:

● State-of-the-art applications of machine learning (ML) in solid waste (SW) is presented.

关键词: Machine learning (ML)     Solid waste (SW)     Bibliometrics     SW management     Energy utilization     Life cycle    

An updated review and conceptual model for optimizing WEEE management in China from a life cycle perspective

Xiaolong Song, Jingwei Wang, Jianxin Yang, Bin Lu

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第11卷 第5期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-017-0985-8

摘要: Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is a rapidly growing category of solid waste. China is now facing WEEE problems from both growing domestic generation and illegal imports. Currently, the amount of WEEE formally treated has increased steadily in China. The layout of the formal sector has been basically completed. Meanwhile, by controlling illegal disassembly activities, the informal sector has been gradually transformed to formal one. Beginning with the overview of the WEEE recycling industry in China, this paper first lists the latest progress in WEEE management from such aspects as the new edition of China RoHS Directive (Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive), the updated WEEE Treatment List, the updated WEEE fund standard, the revised National Hazardous Waste List, and a brand-new plan on extended producer responsibility. In so doing, we elucidate the current challenges on WEEE management in detail: the imbalance between fund levies and subsidies, the gap in the supervision scope, the homogenization of recycling industry and the lack of life cycle approaches. Finally, a conceptual framework for integrated management of WEEE is proposed from a life cycle perspective. Overall, the life cycle management of WEEE includes three aspects: developing life cycle information for decision-making, implementing life cycle engineering with life cycle tools, and improving WEEE legislation based on life cycle thinking. By providing specific operating strategies, this life cycle framework should help to optimize WEEE management in developing countries where legislation is imperfect and the recycling system is relatively immature.

关键词: Waste electrical and electronic equipment     E-waste     Life cycle management     China    

Clustering economic sectors in China on a life cycle basis to achieve environmental sustainability

Sai LIANG, Tianzhu ZHANG, Xiaoping JIA

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2013年 第7卷 第1期   页码 97-108 doi: 10.1007/s11783-012-0402-2

摘要: To improve material efficiency, industrial structure optimization becomes a focal point in Chinese industrial and environmental policies. It is crucial to cluster economic sectors and determine their priority for industrial and environmental policy implementation. Integrating a set of criteria, a hybrid input-output model and the hierarchical cluster analysis, this study clusters China’s economic sectors and determines their priority on a life cycle basis. China’s economic sectors are clustered into three clusters. Industrial structure changes (industrial policy) should encourage the development of sectors in cluster 1 and limit the development of sectors in cluster 2. Technology development and materials recycling (two environmental policies) should mainly focus on sectors in clusters 1 and 2. Future industrial policies in China should limit the development of two sectors named and . Instead of limiting some industries by command-and-control, the best policy option is to remedy environmental standards and law enforcement. Enterprises belonging to the identified key sectors from the viewpoint of direct production impacts should be concerned to achieve enterprise sustainability. To achieve sustainable production chains, the identified key sectors from the viewpoint of accumulative production impacts should be concerned. For sustainable consumption, the identified key sectors from the viewpoint of consumption impacts should be concerned to transform consumption styles. Most of environmental pressure can be alleviated not only by technical improvements and material recycling, but also by the development of economic sectors in cluster 1.

关键词: cluster analysis     input-output model     life cycle     material flow analysis     sustainable development    

General framework for bridge life cycle design

Junhai MA, Airong CHEN, Jun HE

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2009年 第3卷 第1期   页码 50-56 doi: 10.1007/s11709-009-0004-7

摘要: Based on a detailed illustration for bridge life cycle design which comprises the processes of service life design, aesthetics design, performance design, environmental and ecological design, inspection, maintenance and repair design as well as cost analysis, this paper presented a general framework for bridge life cycle design comprising three design phases and six design processes.

关键词: bridge whole life design     design phase     design process     general framework    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Identification and assessment of environmental burdens of Chinese copper production from a life cycle

Xiaolong SONG,Jianxin YANG,Bin LU,Bo LI,Guangyuan ZENG

期刊论文

Life cycle carbon emission assessment of a multi-purpose university building: A case study of Sri Lanka

Ramya KUMANAYAKE, Hanbin LUO

期刊论文

Environmental, social, and economic assessment of energy utilization of crop residue in China

Yueling ZHANG, Junjie LI, Huan LIU, Guangling ZHAO, Yajun TIAN, Kechang XIE

期刊论文

Carbon emission analysis of a residential building in China through life cycle assessment

Yin ZHANG,Xuejing ZHENG,Huan ZHANG,Gaofeng CHEN,Xia WANG

期刊论文

Life cycle assessment and economic analysis of HFC-134a production from natural gas compared with oil-based

期刊论文

Life cycle assessment of low impact development technologies combined with conventional centralized water

Hyunju Jeong, Osvaldo A. Broesicke, Bob Drew, Duo Li, John C. Crittenden

期刊论文

the efficiency and environmental impact of two methods of utilizing polyvinyl chloride waste based on lifecycle assessments

WU Yuehui,WANG Guoliang,WANG Zhen,LIU Yi,GU Ping,SUN Dezhi

期刊论文

Comparison on End-of-Life strategies of WEEE in China based on LCA

Bin Lu, Xiaolong Song, Jianxin Yang, Dong Yang

期刊论文

Environmental and human health impact assessment of major interior wall decorative materials

Bingqing ZHANG, Ruochen ZENG, Xiaodong LI

期刊论文

A comparison of production system life cycle models

Rajesh ATTRI, Sandeep GROVER

期刊论文

PROPOSED INNOVATION REFORM MODEL FOR THE MINERAL NITROGEN FERTILIZER INDUSTRY IN CHINA TO REDUCE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS

期刊论文

State-of-the-art applications of machine learning in the life cycle of solid waste management

期刊论文

An updated review and conceptual model for optimizing WEEE management in China from a life cycle perspective

Xiaolong Song, Jingwei Wang, Jianxin Yang, Bin Lu

期刊论文

Clustering economic sectors in China on a life cycle basis to achieve environmental sustainability

Sai LIANG, Tianzhu ZHANG, Xiaoping JIA

期刊论文

General framework for bridge life cycle design

Junhai MA, Airong CHEN, Jun HE

期刊论文