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Magnetic confinement fusion: a brief review

Chuanjun HUANG, Laifeng LI

《能源前沿(英文)》 2018年 第12卷 第2期   页码 305-313 doi: 10.1007/s11708-018-0539-1

摘要: Fusion energy is considered to be the ultimate energy source, which does not contribute to climate change compared with conventional fossil fuel. It is massive compared with unconventional renewable energy and demonstrates fewer safety features compared with unconventional fission energy. During the past several decades, never-ceasing efforts have been made to peacefully utilize the fusion energy in various approaches, especially inertial confinement and magnetic confinement. In this paper, the main developments of magnetic confinement fusion with emphasis on confinement systems as well as challenges of materials related to superconducting magnet and plasma-facing components are reviewed. The scientific feasibility of magnetic confinement fusion has been demonstrated in JET, TFTR, JT-60, and EAST, which instigates the construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A fusion roadmap to DEMO and commercial fusion power plant has been established and steady progresses have been made to achieve the ultimate energy source.

关键词: fusion energy     magnetic confinement     tokamak     structural material     superconducting magnet    

Confinement properties of circular concrete columns wrapped with prefabricated textile-reinforced fine

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 doi: 10.1007/s11709-023-0955-0

摘要: This paper proposes an innovative column composed of a core column (including both reinforced concrete (RC) and plain concrete (PC) columns) and a prefabricated textile-reinforced fine concrete (TRC) shell. To study the confinement properties of TRC shells on this novel type of concrete column, 20 circular specimens, including 12 PC columns and 8 RC columns, were prepared for axial compressive tests. Four key parameters, including the column size, reinforcing ratio of the carbon textile, concrete strength, and stirrup spacing, were evaluated. The results indicated that the compressive properties of the columns were improved by increasing the reinforcing ratio of the textile layers. In the case of TRC-confined PC columns, the maximum improvement in the peak load was 56.3%, and for TRC-confined RC columns, the maximum improvement was 60.2%. Based on the test results, an analytical model that can be used to calculate the stress–strain curves of prefabricated TRC shell-confined concrete columns has been proposed. The calculated curves predicted by the proposed model agreed well with the test results.

关键词: textile-reinforced fine concrete     prefabricated shell     confined concrete column     confinement properties     stress–strain relationship    

Modeling and analysis of magnetic dipoles in weak magnetic field

WANG Zhaoxia, ZHANG Weimin, LIU Hongguang

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2008年 第3卷 第2期   页码 222-225 doi: 10.1007/s11465-008-0028-z

摘要: The magnetic leakage field distribution resulting from linear defects of a tube sample in the geomagnetic field is modeled according to the magnetic dipole theory. The formula to compute the normal component of the weak magnetic field is deduced based on the spatial distribution of the magnetic dipole. The shape and characteristics of the zero line (an important criterion for magnetic memory testing) of the normal field is analyzed under different longitudinal magnetizations. Results show that the characteristics of the zero line should be considered when the metal magnetic memory testing method is used to find and locate the defect.

关键词: geomagnetic     theory     important criterion     magnetic leakage     normal component    

Continuous size fractionation of magnetic nanoparticles by using simulated moving bed chromatography

Carsten-Rene Arlt, Dominik Brekel, Stefan Neumann, David Rafaja, Matthias Franzreb

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第5期   页码 1346-1355 doi: 10.1007/s11705-021-2040-3

摘要: The size fractionation of magnetic nanoparticles is a technical problem, which until today can only be solved with great effort. Nevertheless, there is an important demand for nanoparticles with sharp size distributions, for example for medical technology or sensor technology. Using magnetic chromatography, we show a promising method for fractionation of magnetic nanoparticles with respect to their size and/or magnetic properties. This was achieved by passing magnetic nanoparticles through a packed bed of fine steel spheres with which they interact magnetically because single domain ferro-/ferrimagnetic nanoparticles show a spontaneous magnetization. Since the strength of this interaction is related to particle size, the principle is suitable for size fractionation. This concept was transferred into a continuous process in this work using a so-called simulated moving bed chromatography. Applying a suspension of magnetic nanoparticles within a size range from 20 to 120 nm, the process showed a separation sharpness of up to 0.52 with recovery rates of 100%. The continuous feed stream of magnetic nanoparticles could be fractionated with a space-time-yield of up to 5 mg/(L∙min). Due to the easy scalability of continuous chromatography, the process is a promising approach for the efficient fractionation of industrially relevant amounts of magnetic nanoparticles.

关键词: magnetic chromatography     simulated moving bed chromatography     magnetic nanoparticles     size fractionation    

Magnetostriction varieties and stress relief caused by pulsed magnetic field

Zhipeng CAI, Xinjie DUAN, Jian LIN, Haiyan ZHAO

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2011年 第6卷 第3期   页码 354-358 doi: 10.1007/s11465-011-0123-4

摘要:

Magnetostriction is investigated to evaluate the stress relief caused by pulsed magnetic field treatment, because this physical property is closely associated with residual stress. Magnetostriction of different stressed samples is measured in this paper. The stress variations caused by pulsed magnetic treatment are also compared. It is found that magnetostriction variations are closely associated with stress changes. Thermodynamic potential is used to find the relationship between them. Based on several assumptions, we find that the product of magnetostriction amplitude and stress magnitude is nearly a constant during magnetic field treatment, which is valuable for stress relief evaluation and optimizing processing parameters. This conclusion is testified by stress measurements, and the calculated values are in accordance with the experiment results.

关键词: magnetostriction     pulsed magnetic field treatment     stress relief    

Synergistic scale inhibition of polyaspartic acid composite with magnetic field

LIU Zhenfa, WANG Yanji, GAO Yuhua, ZHANG Lihui

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2007年 第1卷 第3期   页码 261-265 doi: 10.1007/s11705-007-0047-z

摘要: Polyaspartic acid (PASP) composite, a scale inhibitor, was prepared from PASP, itaconic acid–acrylic acid–acrylic ester (IA-AA-AE) terpolymer and 2-phosphonobutane- 1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid (PBTCA). The scale inhibition of PASP composite and the effect of its synergism with a magnetic field on scale inhibition were investigated. Calcium carbonate crystals in scale samples were characterized by means of SEM and XRD. The static and dynamic experiments show that the chelating function of PASP composite for Ca can be enhanced by synergism with a magnetic field. Under Ca 650 mg/L, HCO 1,300 mg/L and PASP composite 4 mg/L, the scale inhibition rate of PASP composite in magnetic water can increase by 10% in static state and by 20% in dynamic experiments. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that calcite and aragonite can be completely transformed into vaterite by using PASP composite.

关键词: synergism     magnetic     PBTCA     dynamic     acid–acrylic acid–acrylic    

Rare-earth separation based on the differences of ionic magnetic moment via quasi-liquid strategy

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第10期   页码 1584-1594 doi: 10.1007/s11705-022-2189-4

摘要: The separation of rare earth elements is particularly difficult due to their similar physicochemical properties. Based on the tiny differences of ionic radius, solvent extraction has been developed as the “mass method” in industry with hundreds of stages, extremely intensive chemical consumption and large capital investments. The differences of the ionic magnetic moment among rare earths are greater than that of ionic radius. Herein, a novel method based on the large ionic magnetic moment differences of rare earth elements was proposed to promote the separation efficiency. Rare earths were firstly dissolved in the ionic liquid, then the ordering degree of them was improved with the Z-bond effect, and finally the magnetic moment differences between paramagnetic and diamagnetic rare earths in quasi-liquid system were enhanced. Taking the separation of Er/Y, Ho/Y and Er/Ho as examples, the results showed that Er(III) and Ho(III) containing ionic liquids had obvious magnetic response, while ionic liquids containing Y(III) had no response. The separation factors of Er/Y and Ho/Y were achieved at 9.0 and 28.82, respectively. Magnetic separation via quasi-liquid system strategy provides a possibility of the novel, green, and efficient method for rare earth separation.

关键词: rare earth element     different magnetic moment     magnetic separation     ionic liquid    

A new miniaturized engine based on thermomagnetic effect of magnetic fluids

Lujun ZHOU, Yimin XUAN, Qiang LI, Wenlei LIAN

《能源前沿(英文)》 2009年 第3卷 第2期   页码 160-166 doi: 10.1007/s11708-009-0018-9

摘要: A new engine system, essentially consisting of a permanent NdFeB magnet, a kerosene-based magnetic fluid and a rotor, is proposed based on the thermomagnetic effect of a temperature-sensitive magnetic fluid. The rotor was driven by the thermal convection of the magnetic fluid in the presence of a homogeneous external magnetic field. A digital camera was used to record the rotation speed of the rotor to investigate the performance of the engine system under varying conditions such as heat load, heat sink temperature, and magnetic field distribution. The peak angle velocity obtained for the rotor was about 2.1 rad/min. The results illustrate that the rotation speed of the rotor increases as the input heat load increases, or as the heat sink temperature decreases. The performance of the motor is considerably influenced by the magnetic field imposed. Therefore, the performance of such an engine can be controlled conveniently by changing the external magnetic field and/or the temperature distribution in the fluid.

关键词: magnetic fluid     thermomagnetic effect     engine    

Rotating magnetic beacons magnetic field strength size in SAGD

Bing TU, Desheng LI, Enhuai LIN, Bin LUO, Jian HE, Lezhi YE, Jiliang LIU, Yuezhong WANG

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2010年 第5卷 第4期   页码 446-449 doi: 10.1007/s11465-010-0113-y

摘要: Rotation magnetic beacons magnetic field strength is very important to drill parallel horizontal twin wells in steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD). This paper analyzes a small magnet with a diameter of 25.4 mm. At each end, there is a length of 12.6 mm with permanent magnet, and in the middle, there is a length of 78 mm with magnetic materials. The magnetic field strength generated by the magnetic material of 1J12, 1J50, and 1J79 is analyzed, respectively. ANSOFT software is used to simulate the magnetic field strength generated by different magnetic materials above, which also be tested through experimental methods. The comparison of the simulation and experimental results show that experimental and simulation results are basically consistent, and the results can meet the specific requirements of engineering applications.

关键词: rotating magnetic beacons     steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD)     ANSOFT    

Confinement effects in methanol to olefins catalysed by zeolites: A computational review

German Sastre

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2016年 第10卷 第1期   页码 76-89 doi: 10.1007/s11705-016-1557-3

摘要: Small pore zeolites, containing 8-rings as the largest, are widely employed as catalysts in the process of methanol-to-olefins (MTO). Reactants and products diffuse with constraints through 8-rings and this is one of the reaction bottlenecks related to zeolite micropore topology. Small pore zeolites and silicon-aluminophosphates(SAPOs) containing cavities, where olefins are mainly formed through the hydrocarbon pool (HP) mechanism, are frequently tested for MTO. Shape selectivity of transition states within the side-chain methylation will be reviewed as this is one of the controlling steps of the MTO process, with particular attention to the role of hexamethylbenzene (HMB) and heptamethylbenzenium cation (HeptaMB ), which are the most tipically detected reaction intermediates, common to the paring and side-chain routes within the HP mechanism. The relative stability of these and other species will be reviewed in terms of confinement effects in different cage-based zeolites. The role of the different alkylating agents, methanol, dimethyl ether (DME), and surface methoxy species (SMS) will also be reviewed from the computational viewpoint.

关键词: small pore zeolites     SAPOs     methanol-to-olefins     hydrocarbon pool mechanism     alkylation of polymethylbenzenes    

oxidation capacity of ammonia-oxidizing archaeon originated from wastewater: Utilizing low-density static magnetic

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第5期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-020-1375-1

摘要:

• AOA’s ammonia oxidizing capacity was enhanced under moderate magnetic field.

关键词: Ammonia-oxidizing archaeon     Ammonia oxidation     Magnetic field     Magnetotaxis     Heredity    

Fabrication of magnetic multi-template molecularly imprinted polymer composite for the selective and

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第5期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-021-1395-5

摘要:

• Magnetic multi-template molecularly imprinted polymer composite was synthesized.

关键词: Tetracyclines     Removal     Adsorption     Molecularly imprinted polymer     Magnetic graphene oxide    

Discovery of the mechanisms of acupuncture in the treatment of migraine based on functional magnetic

《医学前沿(英文)》   页码 993-1005 doi: 10.1007/s11684-023-0989-7

摘要: Migraine is one of the most prevalent and disabling neurological disease, but the current pharmacotherapies show limited efficacy and often accompanied by adverse effects. Acupuncture is a promising complementary therapy, but further clinical evidence is needed. The influence of acupuncture on migraine is not an immediate effect, and its mechanism remains unclear. This study aims to provide further clinical evidence for the anti-migraine effects of acupuncture and explore the mechanism involved. A randomized controlled trial was performed among 10 normal controls and 38 migraineurs. The migraineurs were divided into blank control, sham acupuncture, and acupuncture groups. Patients were subjected to two courses of treatment, and each treatment lasted for 5 days, with an interval of 1 day between the two courses. The effectiveness of treatment was evaluated using pain questionnaire. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were analyzed for investigating brain changes induced by treatments. Blood plasma was collected for metabolomics and proteomics studies. Correlation and mediation analyses were performed to investigate the interaction between clinical, fMRI and omics changes. Results showed that acupuncture effectively relieved migraine symptoms in a way different from sham acupuncture in terms of curative effect, affected brain regions, and signaling pathways. The anti-migraine mechanism involves a complex network related to the regulation of the response to hypoxic stress, reversal of brain energy imbalance, and regulation of inflammation. The brain regions of migraineurs affected by acupuncture include the lingual gyrus, default mode network, and cerebellum. The effect of acupuncture on patients’ metabolites/proteins may precede that of the brain.

关键词: acupuncture     migraine     fMRI     metabolome     proteome    

Application of metal magnetic memory test in failure analysis and safety evaluation of vessels

Yiliang ZHANG, Song YANG, Xuedong XU

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2009年 第4卷 第1期   页码 40-48 doi: 10.1007/s11465-009-0003-3

摘要: Metal magnetic memory test (MMMT), which is a new subject in the field of nondestructive examination, can determine regions of stress concentration by testing the distribution of the magnetic field of metal structures so as to effectively diagnose premature defects. MMMT and other test methods are applied in the study to put a propylene purifier of a temperature-jump accident and a leaked ammonia vessel through safety evaluation. Results are as follows: The margin of safety declines after the purifier is overburnt; several stress concentrations are observed within the overburnt area and the level of stress concentration rises after one-month operation; and overpressure operation of the purifier must be strictly avoided and carefully monitored during later operation. Cracks are observed on the ammonia vessel after one year’s service. Extremely high residual stress is the primary cause of cracks. After four years in service, the residual stresses existing in the area of the base metal and weld zone are still greater than 0.5 , which results in numerous cracks due to stress corrosion. From the MMMT result of the ammonia vessel’s defects, it can be seen that the derivative of magnetic density (d p/d ) is an important reference variable. Within the 31 leakage points, 67.7% of them whose dHp/dx values are more than 10, and 96.8% of them whose dHp/dx values are more than 8.

关键词: Metal magnetic memory test (MMMT)     nondestructive testing (NDT)     residual stress     propylene purifier     ammonia vessel    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Magnetic confinement fusion: a brief review

Chuanjun HUANG, Laifeng LI

期刊论文

Confinement properties of circular concrete columns wrapped with prefabricated textile-reinforced fine

期刊论文

Modeling and analysis of magnetic dipoles in weak magnetic field

WANG Zhaoxia, ZHANG Weimin, LIU Hongguang

期刊论文

李建刚:中国磁约束聚变的发展和未来(2019年5月15日)

李建刚(院士)

2021年04月23日

会议视频

Continuous size fractionation of magnetic nanoparticles by using simulated moving bed chromatography

Carsten-Rene Arlt, Dominik Brekel, Stefan Neumann, David Rafaja, Matthias Franzreb

期刊论文

Magnetostriction varieties and stress relief caused by pulsed magnetic field

Zhipeng CAI, Xinjie DUAN, Jian LIN, Haiyan ZHAO

期刊论文

Synergistic scale inhibition of polyaspartic acid composite with magnetic field

LIU Zhenfa, WANG Yanji, GAO Yuhua, ZHANG Lihui

期刊论文

Rare-earth separation based on the differences of ionic magnetic moment via quasi-liquid strategy

期刊论文

A new miniaturized engine based on thermomagnetic effect of magnetic fluids

Lujun ZHOU, Yimin XUAN, Qiang LI, Wenlei LIAN

期刊论文

Rotating magnetic beacons magnetic field strength size in SAGD

Bing TU, Desheng LI, Enhuai LIN, Bin LUO, Jian HE, Lezhi YE, Jiliang LIU, Yuezhong WANG

期刊论文

Confinement effects in methanol to olefins catalysed by zeolites: A computational review

German Sastre

期刊论文

oxidation capacity of ammonia-oxidizing archaeon originated from wastewater: Utilizing low-density static magnetic

期刊论文

Fabrication of magnetic multi-template molecularly imprinted polymer composite for the selective and

期刊论文

Discovery of the mechanisms of acupuncture in the treatment of migraine based on functional magnetic

期刊论文

Application of metal magnetic memory test in failure analysis and safety evaluation of vessels

Yiliang ZHANG, Song YANG, Xuedong XU

期刊论文