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EFFECTS OF SUBSTITUTION OF MINERAL NITROGEN WITH ORGANIC AMENDMENTS ON NITROGEN LOSS FROM SLOPING CROPLANDOF PURPLE SOIL

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第9卷 第3期   页码 396-406 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2022456

摘要:

● Interflow acts as the dominant pathway for N loss loadings.

关键词: improved fertilization regime     interflow     nitrogen forms     nitrogen leaching     purple soil     sloping cropland    

Effect of mulching with maize straw on water infiltration and soil loss at different initial soil moistures

Yifu ZHANG,Hongwen LI,Jin HE,Qingjie WANG,Ying CHEN,Wanzhi CHEN,Shaochun MA

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2016年 第3卷 第2期   页码 161-170 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2016104

摘要: Mulching and soil water content (SWC) have a significant impact on soil erosion, and this study investigated the effect of straw mulching on water infiltration and soil loss under different initial SWC treatments in a rainfall simulation experiment conducted in northern China. Increasing initial SWC can decrease soil infiltration and increase soil loss. During an 80 mm rainfall event (80 mm·h for 60 min), 8%, 12% and 16% initial SWC treatments decreased cumulative infiltration by 8.7%, 42.5% and 58.1%, and increased total sediment yield by 44, 146 and 315 g, respectively, compared to 4% initial SWC. However, in all the straw mulching treatments, there was no significant difference in stable infiltration rate between the different initial SWC treatments. For all initial SWC treatments, straw mulching of 30% or more significantly enhanced water infiltration by over 31% and reduced soil loss by over 49%, compared to the unmulched treatment. Taking into consideration the performance of no-till planters, a maize straw mulching rate of 30% to 60% (1400–3100 kg·hm ) is recommended for the conservation of water and soil in northern China.

关键词: infiltration     initial soil water content     rainfall simulation     soil loss     straw mulching    

CRITICAL PROCESSES AND MAJOR FACTORS THAT DRIVE NITROGEN TRANSPORT FROM FARMLAND TO SURFACE WATER BODIES

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第10卷 第4期   页码 541-552 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2023518

摘要:

Agricultural non-point source pollution is increasingly an important issue affecting surface water quality. Currently, the majority of the studies on nitrogen loss have focused on the agricultural field scale, however, the response of surface water quality at the watershed scale into the nitrogen loss at the field scale is poorly understood. The present study systematically reviewed the critical processes and major factors that nitrogen transport from farm fields to surface water bodies. The critical processes of farmland nitrogen entering surface water bodies involve the processes of nitrogen transport from farmland to ditches and the transformation processes of nitrogen during migration in ditches/rivers. Nitrogen transport from farmland to ditches is one of the prerequisites and critical processes for farmland nitrogen transport to surface water bodies. The transformation of nitrogen forms in ditches/rivers is an intermediate process in the migration of nitrogen from farmland to surface water bodies. Nitrogen loss from farmland is related to soil storage and exogenous inputs. Therefore, nitrogen input management should not only consider the current input, but also the contribution of soil storage due to the historical surpluses. Ditches/rivers have a strong retention capacity for nitrogen, which will significantly affect the process of farmland nitrogen entering surface water bodies. The factors affecting nitrogen transformation in river/ditches can be placed in four categories: (1) factors affecting hydraulic retention time, (2) factors affecting contact area, (3) factors affecting biological activity, and (4) forms and amount of nitrogen loading to river/ditches. Ditch systems are more biologically (including plants and microbes) active than rivers with biological factors having a greater influence on nitrogen transformation. When developing pollution prevention and control strategies, ecological ditches can be constructed to increase biological activity and reduce the amount of surplus nitrogen entering the water body. The present research should be valuable for the evaluation of environment impacts of nitrogen loss and the non-point source pollution control.

关键词: nitrogen     loss from soil     transformation     farm field scale     watershed scale    

Effects of riparian vegetation patterns on the distribution and potential loss of soil nutrients: a case

Erhui GUO,Liding CHEN,Ranhao SUN,Zhaoming WANG

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2015年 第9卷 第2期   页码 279-287 doi: 10.1007/s11783-014-0667-8

摘要: A riparian ecosystem is an ecological transition zone between a river channel and terrestrial ecosystems. Riparian ecosystems play a vital role in maintaining stream health and bank stabilization. The types of riparian vegetation have changed greatly because of human activities along the Wenyu River. This study examines the impact of riparian vegetation patterns on water pollution due to soil nutrient loss. Four riparian vegetation patterns from the river channel to the upland were chosen as the focus of this study: grassland, cropland, grassland-cropland, and grassland-manmade lawn. The different distributions of soil nutrients along vegetation patterns and the potential risk of nutrient loss were observed and compared. The results showed that riparian cropland has the lowest value of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP), and organic matter (OM), but it has the highest soil bulk density (BD). The distributions of soil TN, TP, AN, AP, and OM exhibited a declining trend from the upland toward the river channel for riparian cropland, whereas a different trend was observed for the riparian grassland. The vegetation patterns of grassland-cropland and grassland-manmade lawn show that the grassland in the lower slope has more nutrients and OM but lower soil BD than the cropland or manmade lawn in the upper slope. So, the lower-slope grassland may intercept and infiltrate surface runoff from the upland. The lower-slope grassland has higher levels of soil TN, TP, AN, and AP, and thus it may become a new source of nutrient loss. Our results suggest that the management of the riparian vegetation should be improved, particularly in densely populated areas, to control soil erosion and river pollution.

关键词: riparian     vegetation patterns     soil nutrient distribution     nutrient loss     management    

HIGHLIGHTS OF THE SPECIAL ISSUE “PROGRESS ON NITROGEN RESEARCH FROM SOIL TO PLANT AND TO THE ENVIRONMENT

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第9卷 第3期   页码 313-315 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2022460

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Behavior of materials for earth and rockfill dams: Perspective from unsaturated soil mechanics

Eduardo E. ALONSO, Rafaela CARDOSO,

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2010年 第4卷 第1期   页码 1-39 doi: 10.1007/s11709-010-0013-6

摘要: The basis of the design of earth and rockfill dams is focused on ensuring the stability of the structure under a set of conditions expected to occur during its life. Combined mechanical and hydraulic conditions must be considered since pore pressures develop during construction, after impoundment and in drawdown. Other instability phenomena caused by transient flow and internal erosion must be considered. The prediction of the hydro-mechanical behavior of traditional and non-traditional materials used in the construction of dams is therefore fundamental. The materials used for dam’s construction cover a wide range from clayey materials to rockfill. In a broad sense they are compacted materials and therefore unsaturated materials. A summary of the current level of knowledge on the behavior of traditional materials used in the construction of dams is presented in the paper. Regular compacted materials (with a significant clay fraction), rockfill and compacted soft rocks are studied with more detail. The latter are non-traditional materials. They are analysed because their use, as well as the use of mixtures of soil and rock, is becoming more necessary for sustainability reasons.

关键词: dams     unsaturated soil mechanics     suction     rockfill     clayey soil     mixture    

The use of fine portions from construction and demolition waste for expansive soil stabilization: A review

Mgboawaji Claude UJILE; Samuel Jonah ABBEY

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第7期   页码 803-816 doi: 10.1007/s11709-022-0835-z

摘要: Construction and demolition waste (CDW) are the largest waste products in the world today and competes as a viable recycled additive material in place of natural aggregates. Due to the increase in compressive strength of different mix proportions of CDW, it is also considered for reuse in concrete and subbase construction. This study shows the effect of CDW in expansive soil stabilization. The chemical and mechanical properties of these materials have shown that they are capable of developing compressive strength properties for replacement of cement with significant reduction in carbon emission. The inherent compositional properties of recycled CDW compared in this review suggests that CDW have good filler properties in highly expansive soils. Mixtures of crushed brick and recycled aggregates characterised based on chemical properties of different replacement ratios suggests that CDW of good-quality aggregates reduces swell potential of expansive soils and increased mechanical strength in pavement construction.

关键词: mixed fine portions     construction and demolition waste     expansive soil     soil stabilization    

CLIMATE-CHANGE-INDUCED TEMPORAL VARIATION IN PRECIPITATION INCREASES NITROGEN LOSSES FROM INTENSIVE CROPPING

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第9卷 第3期   页码 457-464 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2022452

摘要:

● A simple model was used to evaluate how increasing temporal variability in precipitation influences crop yields and nitrogen losses.

关键词: crop yield     fertilizer timing     nitrogen loss     precipitation variability     toy model    

Enrichment and transfer of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) through dust aerosol generation fromsoil to the air

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第1期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-023-1610-7

摘要:

● Compositional patterns of PAHs in dust aerosol vary from soil during dust generation.

关键词: Dust aerosols     Enrichment factors (EFs)     Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)    

Numerical study of conduction and radiation heat losses from vacuum annulus in parabolic trough receivers

Dongqiang LEI, Yucong REN, Zhifeng WANG

《能源前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第6期   页码 1048-1059 doi: 10.1007/s11708-020-0670-7

摘要: Parabolic trough receiver is a key component to convert solar energy into thermal energy in the parabolic trough solar system. The heat loss of the receiver has an important influence on the thermal efficiency and the operating cost of the power station. In this paper, conduction and radiation heat losses are analyzed respectively to identify the heat loss mechanism of the receiver. A 2-D heat transfer model is established by using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method for rarefied gas flow and heat transfer within the annulus of the receiver to predict the conduction heat loss caused by residual gases. The numerical results conform to the experimental results, and show the temperature of the glass envelope and heat loss for various conditions in detail. The effects of annulus pressure, gas species, temperature of heat transfer fluid, and annulus size on the conduction and radiation heat losses are systematically analyzed. Besides, the main factors that cause heat loss are analyzed, providing a theoretical basis for guiding the improvement of receiver, as well as the operation and maintenance strategy to reduce heat loss.

关键词: parabolic trough receiver     vacuum annulus     rarefied gas     DSMC (direct simulation Monte Carlo)     heat loss    

Global perspectives and future research directions for the phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil: A knowledge mapping analysis from 2001 to 2020

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第6期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-021-1507-2

摘要:

• The overall global perspective of the PHMCS field was obtained.

关键词: Heavy metal-contaminated soil     Hot topics     Knowledge mapping analysis     Knowledge base     Phytoremediation    

Structure creation in earthen construction materials: information from dry soil mixtures

Christopher BECKETT, Charles AUGARDE

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2011年 第5卷 第2期   页码 151-159 doi: 10.1007/s11709-011-0109-7

摘要: There is increasing interest in the use of earthen construction materials, such as rammed earth, due to their inherent sustainability. These materials have been used by man for thousands of years and some of the earliest examples can be found in China. Features of the structures of these materials arise from the means of production. In particular, in situ earthen construction materials exhibit strong anisotropy due to their layered nature. A more subtle structure effect arises from the way that the earth mixture is deposited. This paper reviews and discusses stratification effects in dry soil mixtures, including some original experimental work, and indicates some links between the features of the dry mixtures and earthen construction materials. Improved understanding of the physical processes in play will allow more accurate specification of these materials in the future, and hence spread their use.

关键词: rammed earth     stratification     particle size distribution     pore size distribution    

PRINCIPLES AND PHYSIOLOGIC MECHANISMS IN DIVERSIFYING AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS FOR SUSTAINABILITY: EXPERIENCE FROM

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第9卷 第2期   页码 214-237 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2021437

摘要:

To achieve the triple challenge of food security, reversing biodiversity declines plus mitigating and adapting to climate change, there is a drive to embed ecological principles into agricultural, value-chain practices and decision-making. By diversifying cropping systems at several scales there is potential to decrease reliance on inputs, provide resilience to abiotic and biotic stress, enhance plant, microbe and animal biodiversity, and mitigate against climate change. In this review we highlight the research performed in Scotland over the past 5 years into the impact of the use of ecological principles in agriculture on sustainability, resilience and provision of ecosystem functions. We demonstrate that diversification of the system can enhance ecosystem functions. Soil and plant management interventions, including nature-based solutions, can also enhance soil quality and utilization of legacy nutrients. Additionally, this is facilitated by greater reliance on soil biological processes and trophic interactions. We highlight the example of intercropping with legumes to deliver sustainability through ecological principles and use legumes as an exemplar of the innovation. We conclude that there are many effective interventions that can be made to deliver resilient, sustainable, and diverse agroecosystems for crop and food production, and these may be applicable in any agroecosystem.

 

关键词: diversification / ecological principles / legumes / plant management / soil management / soil ecosystem services    

Removal of high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil by biodiesel

Jinbao WU, Zongqiang GONG, Liyan ZHENG, Yanli YI, Jinghua JIN, Xiaojun LI, Peijun LI

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2010年 第4卷 第4期   页码 387-394 doi: 10.1007/s11783-010-0269-z

摘要: Solubilizing experiments were carried out to evaluate the ability of biodiesel to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from highly contaminated manufactured gas plant (MGP) and PAHs spiked soils with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and tween 80 as comparisons. Biodiesel displayed the highest solubilities of phenanthrene (420.7 mg·L ), pyrene (541.0 mg·L ), and benzo(a)pyrene (436.3 mg·L ). These corresponded to several fold increases relative to 10% HPCD and tween 80. Biodiesel showed a good efficiency for PAH removal from the spiked and MGP soils for both low molecular weight and high molecular weight PAHs at high concentrations. Biodiesel was the best agent for PAH removal from the spiked soils as compared with HPCD and tween 80; as over 77.9% of individual PAH were removed by biodiesel. Tween 80 also showed comparable capability with biodiesel for PAH solubilization at a concentration of 10% for the spiked soils. Biodiesel solubilized a wider range of PAHs as compared to HPCD and tween 80 for the MPG soils. At PAH concentrations of 229.6 and 996.9 mg·kg , biodiesel showed obvious advantage over the 10% HPCD and tween 80, because it removed higher than 80% of total PAH. In this study, a significant difference between PAH removals from the spiked and field MGP soils was observed; PAH removals from the MGP soil by HPCD and tween 80 were much lower than those from the spiked soil. These results demonstrate that the potential for utilizing biodiesel for remediation of highly PAH-contaminated soil has been established.

关键词: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)     biodiesel     soil     removal     solubilization    

Performance and mechanism for cadmium and lead adsorption from water and soil by corn straw biochar

Tong Chi,Jiane Zuo,Fenglin Liu

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第11卷 第2期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-017-0921-y

摘要: Corn straw biochar prepared under 400 °C was the best Cd and Pb adsorption capacity Maximum adsorption capacity of Cd and Pb were 43.48 and 22.73 mg·g , respectively The dominant mechanism of Cd and Pb adsorption was precipitation Biochar could reduce the bioavailability of heavy metals when mixed with soil Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in water and soil could be adsorbed by biochar produced from corn straw. Biochar pyrolyzed under 400°C for 2 h could reach the ideal removal efficiencies (99.24% and 98.62% for Cd and Pb, respectively) from water with the biochar dosage of 20 g·L and initial concentration of 20 mg·L . The pH value of 4–7 was the optimal range for adsorption reaction. The adsorption mechanism was discussed on the basis of a range of characterizations, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman analysis; it was concluded as surface complexation with active sorption sites (-OH, -COO-), coordination with π electrons (C= C, C= O) and precipitation with inorganic anions (OH , CO , SO ) for both Cd and Pb. The sorption isotherms fit Langmuir model rather than Freundlich model, and the saturated sorption capacities for Cd and Pb were 38.91 mg·g and 28.99 mg·g , respectively. When mixed with soil, biochar could effectively increase alkalinity and reduce bioavailability of heavy metals. Thus, biochar derived from corn straw would be a green material for both removal of heavy metals and amelioration of soil.

关键词: Corn straw     Biochar     Heavy metals     Sorption isotherm     Bioavailability    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

EFFECTS OF SUBSTITUTION OF MINERAL NITROGEN WITH ORGANIC AMENDMENTS ON NITROGEN LOSS FROM SLOPING CROPLANDOF PURPLE SOIL

期刊论文

Effect of mulching with maize straw on water infiltration and soil loss at different initial soil moistures

Yifu ZHANG,Hongwen LI,Jin HE,Qingjie WANG,Ying CHEN,Wanzhi CHEN,Shaochun MA

期刊论文

CRITICAL PROCESSES AND MAJOR FACTORS THAT DRIVE NITROGEN TRANSPORT FROM FARMLAND TO SURFACE WATER BODIES

期刊论文

Effects of riparian vegetation patterns on the distribution and potential loss of soil nutrients: a case

Erhui GUO,Liding CHEN,Ranhao SUN,Zhaoming WANG

期刊论文

HIGHLIGHTS OF THE SPECIAL ISSUE “PROGRESS ON NITROGEN RESEARCH FROM SOIL TO PLANT AND TO THE ENVIRONMENT

期刊论文

Behavior of materials for earth and rockfill dams: Perspective from unsaturated soil mechanics

Eduardo E. ALONSO, Rafaela CARDOSO,

期刊论文

The use of fine portions from construction and demolition waste for expansive soil stabilization: A review

Mgboawaji Claude UJILE; Samuel Jonah ABBEY

期刊论文

CLIMATE-CHANGE-INDUCED TEMPORAL VARIATION IN PRECIPITATION INCREASES NITROGEN LOSSES FROM INTENSIVE CROPPING

期刊论文

Enrichment and transfer of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) through dust aerosol generation fromsoil to the air

期刊论文

Numerical study of conduction and radiation heat losses from vacuum annulus in parabolic trough receivers

Dongqiang LEI, Yucong REN, Zhifeng WANG

期刊论文

Global perspectives and future research directions for the phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil: A knowledge mapping analysis from 2001 to 2020

期刊论文

Structure creation in earthen construction materials: information from dry soil mixtures

Christopher BECKETT, Charles AUGARDE

期刊论文

PRINCIPLES AND PHYSIOLOGIC MECHANISMS IN DIVERSIFYING AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS FOR SUSTAINABILITY: EXPERIENCE FROM

期刊论文

Removal of high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil by biodiesel

Jinbao WU, Zongqiang GONG, Liyan ZHENG, Yanli YI, Jinghua JIN, Xiaojun LI, Peijun LI

期刊论文

Performance and mechanism for cadmium and lead adsorption from water and soil by corn straw biochar

Tong Chi,Jiane Zuo,Fenglin Liu

期刊论文