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An experimental study of a single-piston free piston linear generator

Jin XIAO, Yingdong CHENG, Jinlong WANG, Chengwei ZHU, Zhen HUANG

《能源前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第6期   页码 916-930 doi: 10.1007/s11708-022-0838-4

摘要: Free piston linear generator (FPLG) is a promising range extender for the electrical vehicle with unparallel advantages, such as compact structure, higher system efficiency, and reduced maintenance cost. However, due to the lack of the mechanic crankshaft, the related piston motion control is a challenge for the FPLG which causes problems such as misfire and crash and limits its widespread commercialization. Aimed at resolving the problems as misfire, a single-piston FPLG prototype has been designed and manufactured at Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). In this paper, the development process and experimental validation of the related control strategies were detailed. From the experimental studies, significant misfires were observed at first, while the FPLG operated in natural-aspiration conditions. The root cause of this misfire was then identified as the poor scavenging process, and a compressed air source was leveraged to enhance the related scavenging pressure. Afterward, optimal control parameters, in terms of scavenging pressure, air-fuel equivalence ratio, and ignition position, were then calibrated in this charged-scavenging condition. Eventually, the FPLG prototype has achieved a continuous stable operation of over 1000 cycles with an ignition rate of 100% and a cycle-to-cycle variation of less than 0.8%, produced an indicated power of 2.8 kW with an indicated thermal efficiency of 26% and an electrical power of 2.5 kW with an overall efficiency of 23.2%.

关键词: free piston linear generator (FPLG)     charged scavenging     engine control     misfire     stable operation    

Design and modeling of a free-piston engine generator

《能源前沿(英文)》   页码 811-821 doi: 10.1007/s11708-022-0848-2

摘要: Free-piston engine generators (FPEGs) can be applied as decarbonized range extenders for electric vehicles because of their high thermal efficiency, low friction loss, and ultimate fuel flexibility. In this paper, a parameter-decoupling approach is proposed to model the design of an FPEG. The parameter-decoupling approach first divides the FPEG into three parts: a two-stroke engine, an integrated scavenging pump, and a linear permanent magnet synchronous machine (LPMSM). Then, each of these is designed according to predefined specifications and performance targets. Using this decoupling approach, a numerical model of the FPEG, including the three aforementioned parts, was developed. Empirical equations were adopted to design the engine and scavenging pump, while special considerations were applied for the LPMSM. A finite element model with a multi-objective genetic algorithm was adopted for its design. The finite element model results were fed back to the numerical model to update the LPMSM with increased fidelity. The designed FPEG produced 10.2 kW of electric power with an overall system efficiency of 38.5% in a stable manner. The model provides a solid foundation for the manufacturing of related FPEG prototypes.

关键词: free-piston engine generator     linear permanent magnet synchronous machine     system design     numerical model     finite element method    

A space power system of free piston Stirling generator based on potassium heat pipe

Mingqiang LIN, Jian MOU, Chunyun CHI, Guotong HONG, Panhe GE, Gu HU

《能源前沿(英文)》 2020年 第14卷 第1期   页码 1-10 doi: 10.1007/s11708-019-0655-6

摘要: The power system of a free piston Stirling generator (FPSG) based on potassium heat pipes has been developed in this paper. Thanks to the advantages of long life, high reliability, and high overall thermal efficiency, the FPSG is a promising candidate for nuclear energy, especially in space exploration. In this paper, the recent progress of FPSG based on nuclear reactor for space use was briefly reviewed. A novel FPSG weighted only 4.2 kg was designed, and one dimensional thermodynamic modeling of the FPSG using Sage software was performed to estimate its performance. The experiment results indicated that this FPSG could provide 142.4 W at a thermal-to-electric efficiency of nearly 17.4%. Besides, the power system integrated with four FPSGs and potassium heat pipes was performed and the single machine failure test was conducted. The results show that this system could provide an electrical power of 300 W at an overall thermal efficiency of 7.3%. Thus, it is concluded that this power system is feasible and will have a great prospect for future applications.

关键词: free piston Stirling generator (FPSG)     potassium heat pipe     power system     energy conversion    

Design approach for single piston hydraulic free piston diesel engines

Wei WU, Shihua YUAN, Jibin HU, Chongbo JING,

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2009年 第4卷 第4期   页码 371-378 doi: 10.1007/s11465-009-0069-y

摘要: The operating characteristics of a single piston hydraulic free piston diesel engine differ significantly from conventional diesel engines and this provides a theoretical basis for controlling and optimizing the design of the engine. The design of the proposed engine intended as a power supply for a hydraulic propulsion vehicle is presented. An engine performance forecast model was generated in AMESim. The performance of the prototype engine is predicted and the predictive results are verified with experiments. The particular features of the engine are discussed. The dynamic characteristics of the prototype engine are analyzed and the results indicate the rationality and feasibility of the engine design parameters. The features of the controllable working frequency and the intermittence output flows are provided. The flow capacity characteristics of the hydraulic valves on the prototype engine are offered. The methods for starting and the operation after misfire are presented.

关键词: free piston engine (FPE)     diesel engine     hydraulic equipment     simulation     experiment    

Relationships of nitrous oxide fluxes with water quality parameters in free water surface constructed

Juan WU, Jian ZHANG, Wenlin JIA, Huijun XIE, Bo ZHANG

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2009年 第3卷 第2期   页码 241-247 doi: 10.1007/s11783-009-0023-6

摘要: The effects of chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration in the influent on nitrous oxide (N O) emissions, together with the relationships between N O and water quality parameters in free water surface constructed wetlands, were investigated with laboratory-scale systems. N O emission and purification performance of wastewater were very strongly dependent on COD concentration in the influent, and the total N O emission in the system with middle COD influent concentration was the least. The relationships between N O and the chemical and physical water quality variables were studied by using principal component scores in multiple linear regression analysis to predict N O flux. The multiple linear regression model against principal components indicated that different water parameters affected N O flux with different COD concentrations in the influent, but nitrate nitrogen affected N O flux in all systems.

关键词: free water surface constructed wetland     nitrous oxide emission     water quality parameter     principal component analysis     multiple linear regression    

Integrated slipper retainer mechanism to eliminate slipper wear in high-speed axial piston pumps

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 doi: 10.1007/s11465-021-0657-z

摘要: The power density of axial piston pumps can greatly benefit from increasing the speed level. However, traditional slippers in axial piston pumps are exposed to continuous sliding on the swash plate, suffering from serious wear at high rotational speeds. Therefore, this paper presents a new integrated slipper retainer mechanism for high-speed axial piston pumps, which can avoid direct contact between the slippers and the swash plate and thereby eliminate slipper wear under severe operating conditions. A lubrication model was developed for this specific slipper retainer mechanism, and experiments were carried out on a pump prototype operating at high rotational speed up to 10000 r/min. Experimental results qualitatively validated the theoretical model and confirmed the effectiveness of the new slipper design.

关键词: axial piston pump     high speed     slipper wear     slipper design     retainer     lubrication model    

Development of an analytical model to estimate the churning losses in high-speed axial piston pumps

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第17卷 第2期 doi: 10.1007/s11465-021-0671-1

摘要: The axial piston pumps in aerospace applications are often characterized by high-speed rotation to achieve great power density. However, their internal rotating parts are fully immersed in the casing oil during operation, leading to considerable churning losses (more than 10% of total power losses) at high rotational speeds. The churning losses deserve much attention at the design stage of high-speed axial piston pumps, but accurate analytical models are not available to estimate the drag torque associated with the churning losses. In this paper, we derive the analytical expressions of the drag torque acting on the key rotating parts immersed in oil, including the cylinder block and the multiple pistons in a circular array. The calculated drag torque agrees well with the experimental data over a wide range of rotational speeds from 1500 to 12000 r/min. The presented analytical model provides practical guidelines for reducing the churning losses in high-speed axial piston pumps or motors.

关键词: axial piston pump     rotating parts     high rotational speed     churning losses     drag torque    

Fault diagnosis of axial piston pumps with multi-sensor data and convolutional neural network

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第17卷 第3期 doi: 10.1007/s11465-022-0692-4

摘要: Axial piston pumps have wide applications in hydraulic systems for power transmission. Their condition monitoring and fault diagnosis are essential in ensuring the safety and reliability of the entire hydraulic system. Vibration and discharge pressure signals are two common signals used for the fault diagnosis of axial piston pumps because of their sensitivity to pump health conditions. However, most of the previous fault diagnosis methods only used vibration or pressure signal, and literatures related to multi-sensor data fusion for the pump fault diagnosis are limited. This paper presents an end-to-end multi-sensor data fusion method for the fault diagnosis of axial piston pumps. The vibration and pressure signals under different pump health conditions are fused into RGB images and then recognized by a convolutional neural network. Experiments were performed on an axial piston pump to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results show that the proposed multi-sensor data fusion method greatly improves the fault diagnosis of axial piston pumps in terms of accuracy and robustness and has better diagnostic performance than other existing diagnosis methods.

关键词: axial piston pump     fault diagnosis     convolutional neural network     multi-sensor data fusion    

Fast scaling approach based on cavitation conditions to estimate the speed limitation for axial piston

Qun CHAO, Jianfeng TAO, Junbo LEI, Xiaoliang WEI, Chengliang LIU, Yuanhang WANG, Linghui MENG

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第16卷 第1期   页码 176-185 doi: 10.1007/s11465-020-0616-0

摘要: The power density of axial piston pumps can benefit greatly from increased rotational speeds. However, the maximum rotational speed of axial piston machines is limited by the cavitation phenomenon for a given volumetric displacement. This paper presents a scaling law derived from an analytical cavitation model to estimate the speed limitations for the same series of axial piston pumps. The cavitation model is experimentally verified using a high-speed axial piston pump, and the scaling law is validated with open specification data in product brochures. Results show that the speed limitation is approximately proportional to the square root of the inlet pressure and inversely proportional to the cube root of volumetric displacement. Furthermore, a characteristic constant is defined based on the presented scaling law. This constant can represent the comprehensive capacity of axial piston pumps free from cavitation.

关键词: axial piston pump     cavitation     speed limitation     scaling law    

Performance of rolling piston type rotary compressor using fullerenes (C70) and NiFe

Ruixiang WANG,Yihao ZHANG,Yi LIAO

《能源前沿(英文)》 2020年 第14卷 第3期   页码 644-648 doi: 10.1007/s11708-017-0453-y

摘要: A novel way for a compressor to improve its coefficient of performance was proposed in this paper. Fullerenes (C70) and NiFe O nanocomposites were modified by span 80 and dispersed in refrigeration oil by solid grinding (SG). Besides, the tribological properties of the nanocomposites were investigated using a four ball friction tester. The results show that when the mass concentration of fullerenes nanocomposite is higher than 60 ppm and the concentration of nano-oil is 2 g/L, the friction coefficient decreases from 0.13 to 0.06 which means the wear is reduced. The coefficient of performance of the compressor under the air conditioning test condition can be raised by 1.23%.

关键词: rotary compressor     friction coefficient     nanocomposite materials     coefficient of performance     fullerenes (C70)    

Noise control technology for generator sets in enclosures

ZHANG Nailong, YANG Wentong, FEI Renyuan

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2008年 第3卷 第4期   页码 377-384 doi: 10.1007/s11465-008-0051-0

摘要: Currently, noise pollution is an environmental problem all over the world. The health and life of human beings are affected by loud noise from high power generator sets. To reduce such noise, a sound-attenuated enclosure is widely used for its high performance and convenient usage. By installing equipment in an enclosure, noise is controlled and prevented from radiating. In this paper, noise control techniques for enclosures are presented. Enclosure development trends are predicted.

关键词: equipment     generator     sound-attenuated enclosure     convenient     Enclosure development    

Design and analysis of linear oscillating motor for linear pump application-magnetic field, dynamics

Zongxia JIAO,Tianyi WANG,Liang YAN

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2016年 第11卷 第4期   页码 351-362 doi: 10.1007/s11465-016-0407-9

摘要:

A linear oscillating motor is an electromagnetic actuator that can achieve short-stroke reciprocating movement directly without auxiliary transmission mechanisms. It has been widely used in linear pump applications as the source of power and motion. However, because of the demand of high power density in a linear actuation system, the performance of linear oscillating motors has been the focus of studies and deserves further research for high power density. In this paper, a general framework of linear oscillating motor design and optimization is addressed in detail, including the electromagnetic, dynamics, and thermal aspects. First, the electromagnetic and dynamics characteristics are modeled to reveal the principle for optimization. Then, optimization and analysis on magnetic structure, resonant system, and thermal features are conducted, which provide the foundation for prototype development. Finally, experimental results are provided for validation. As a whole, this process offers complete guidance for high power density linear oscillating motors in linear pump applications.

关键词: linear oscillating motor     linear pump     magnetic field     motor optimization    

Comparison between linear and non-linear forms of pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order adsorption

Junxiong LIN , Lan WANG ,

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2009年 第3卷 第3期   页码 320-324 doi: 10.1007/s11783-009-0030-7

摘要: The best-fit equations of linear and non-linear forms of the two widely used kinetic models, namely pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order equations, were compared in this study. The experimental kinetics of methylene blue adsorption on activated carbon was used for this research. Both the correlation coefficient () and the normalized standard deviation Δ(%) were employed as error analysis methods to determine the best-fitting equations. The results show that the non-linear forms of pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models were more suitable than the linear forms for fitting the experimental data. The experimental kinetics may have been distorted by linearization of the linear kinetic equations, and thus, the non-linear forms of kinetic equations should be primarily used to obtain the adsorption parameters. In addition, the Δ(%) method for error analysis may be better to determine the best-fitting model in this case.

关键词: adsorption     pseudo-first order     pseudo-second order     kinetic model     linear method     non-linear method    

Performance prediction of switched reluctance generator with time average and small signal models

Jyoti KOUJALAGI, B. UMAMAHESWARI, R. ARUMUGAM

《能源前沿(英文)》 2013年 第7卷 第1期   页码 56-68 doi: 10.1007/s11708-012-0216-8

摘要: This paper presents the complete mathematical model and predicts the performance of switched reluctance generator with time average and small signal models. The complete mathematical model is developed in three stages. First, a switching model is developed based on quasi-linear inductance profile. Next, based on the switching behaviour, a time average model is obtained to measure the difference between the excitation and generation time in each switching cycle. Finally, to track control voltage and current wave shapes, a small signal model is designed. The effectiveness of the complete multilevel model combining electrical machine, power converter, load and control with programming language is demonstrated through simulations. A PI controller is used for controlling the voltage of the generator. The results presented show that the controller exhibits accurate tracking control of load voltage under different operating conditions. This demonstrates that the proposed model is able to perform an accurate control of the generated output voltage even in transient situations. The simulation is performed to choose the control parameters and study the performance of switched reluctance generator prior to its actual implementation. Initial experimental results are presented using NI-Data acquisition card to control the output power according to load requirements.

关键词: generator     reluctance     switching model     small signal model     time average model    

Weak characteristic information extraction from early fault of wind turbine generator gearbox

Xiaoli XU, Xiuli LIU

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第12卷 第3期   页码 357-366 doi: 10.1007/s11465-017-0423-4

摘要:

Given the weak early degradation characteristic information during early fault evolution in gearbox of wind turbine generator, traditional singular value decomposition (SVD)-based denoising may result in loss of useful information. A weak characteristic information extraction based on µ-SVD and local mean decomposition (LMD) is developed to address this problem. The basic principle of the method is as follows: Determine the denoising order based on cumulative contribution rate, perform signal reconstruction, extract and subject the noisy part of signal to LMD and µ-SVD denoising, and obtain denoised signal through superposition. Experimental results show that this method can significantly weaken signal noise, effectively extract the weak characteristic information of early fault, and facilitate the early fault warning and dynamic predictive maintenance.

关键词: wind turbine generator gearbox     µ-singular value decomposition     local mean decomposition     weak characteristic information extraction     early fault warning    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

An experimental study of a single-piston free piston linear generator

Jin XIAO, Yingdong CHENG, Jinlong WANG, Chengwei ZHU, Zhen HUANG

期刊论文

Design and modeling of a free-piston engine generator

期刊论文

A space power system of free piston Stirling generator based on potassium heat pipe

Mingqiang LIN, Jian MOU, Chunyun CHI, Guotong HONG, Panhe GE, Gu HU

期刊论文

Design approach for single piston hydraulic free piston diesel engines

Wei WU, Shihua YUAN, Jibin HU, Chongbo JING,

期刊论文

Relationships of nitrous oxide fluxes with water quality parameters in free water surface constructed

Juan WU, Jian ZHANG, Wenlin JIA, Huijun XIE, Bo ZHANG

期刊论文

Integrated slipper retainer mechanism to eliminate slipper wear in high-speed axial piston pumps

期刊论文

Development of an analytical model to estimate the churning losses in high-speed axial piston pumps

期刊论文

Fault diagnosis of axial piston pumps with multi-sensor data and convolutional neural network

期刊论文

Fast scaling approach based on cavitation conditions to estimate the speed limitation for axial piston

Qun CHAO, Jianfeng TAO, Junbo LEI, Xiaoliang WEI, Chengliang LIU, Yuanhang WANG, Linghui MENG

期刊论文

Performance of rolling piston type rotary compressor using fullerenes (C70) and NiFe

Ruixiang WANG,Yihao ZHANG,Yi LIAO

期刊论文

Noise control technology for generator sets in enclosures

ZHANG Nailong, YANG Wentong, FEI Renyuan

期刊论文

Design and analysis of linear oscillating motor for linear pump application-magnetic field, dynamics

Zongxia JIAO,Tianyi WANG,Liang YAN

期刊论文

Comparison between linear and non-linear forms of pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order adsorption

Junxiong LIN , Lan WANG ,

期刊论文

Performance prediction of switched reluctance generator with time average and small signal models

Jyoti KOUJALAGI, B. UMAMAHESWARI, R. ARUMUGAM

期刊论文

Weak characteristic information extraction from early fault of wind turbine generator gearbox

Xiaoli XU, Xiuli LIU

期刊论文