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A systemic review of hydrogen supply chain in energy transition

《能源前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第1期   页码 102-122 doi: 10.1007/s11708-023-0861-0

摘要: Targeting the net-zero emission (NZE) by 2050, the hydrogen industry is drastically developing in recent years. However, the technologies of hydrogen upstream production, midstream transportation and storage, and downstream utilization are facing obstacles. In this paper, the development of hydrogen industry from the production, transportation and storage, and sustainable economic development perspectives were reviewed. The current challenges and future outlooks were summarized consequently. In the upstream, blue hydrogen is dominating the current hydrogen supply, and an implementation of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) can raise its cost by 30%. To achieve an economic feasibility, green hydrogen needs to reduce its cost by 75% to approximately 2 /kg at the large scale. The research progress in the midterm sector is still in a preliminary stage, where experimental and theoretical investigations need to be conducted in addressing the impact of embrittlement, contamination, and flammability so that they could provide a solid support for material selection and large-scale feasibility studies. In the downstream utilization, blue hydrogen will be used in producing value-added chemicals in the short-term. Over the long-term, green hydrogen will dominate the market owing to its high energy intensity and zero carbon intensity which provides a promising option for energy storage. Technologies in the hydrogen industry require a comprehensive understanding of their economic and environmental benefits over the whole life cycle in supporting operators and policymakers.

关键词: hydrogen production     hydrogen transportation and storage     hydrogen economy     carbon capture and sequestration (CCS)     technology assessment    

Can energy storage make off-grid photovoltaic hydrogen production system more economical?

《工程管理前沿(英文)》   页码 672-694 doi: 10.1007/s42524-022-0245-x

摘要: Under the ambitious goal of carbon neutralization, photovoltaic (PV)-driven electrolytic hydrogen (PVEH) production is emerging as a promising approach to reduce carbon emission. Considering the intermittence and variability of PV power generation, the deployment of battery energy storage can smoothen the power output. However, the investment cost of battery energy storage is pertinent to non-negligible expenses. Thus, the installation of energy-storage equipment in a PVEH system is a complex trade-off problem. The primary goals of this study are to compare the engineering economics of PVEH systems with and without energy storage, and to explore time nodes when the cost of the former scenario can compete with the latter by factoring the technology learning curve. The levelized cost of hydrogen (LCOH) is a widely used economic indicator. Represented by seven areas in seven regions of China, results show that the LCOH with and without energy storage is approximately 22.23 and 20.59 yuan/kg in 2020, respectively. In addition, as technology costs drop, the LCOH of a PVEH system with energy storage will be less than that without energy storage in 2030.

关键词: hydrogen     off-grid photovoltaic     energy storage     LCOH     engineering economics    

Photocatalysis: from solar light to hydrogen energy

《能源前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第3期   页码 565-567 doi: 10.1007/s11708-021-0784-6

电解制氢与氢储能

俞红梅, 衣宝廉

《中国工程科学》 2018年 第20卷 第3期   页码 58-65 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2018.03.009

摘要:

电解水制氢技术在直流电的作用下,将水分解为纯氢和纯氧。氢作为能源载体,可实现无碳能源的循环利用,可以将波动性的可再生能源电力通过“电–氢–电(或化工原料)”的方式加以高效利用,兼具绿色与高效的特点,为未来人类社会的能源转化利用提出了新的解决方案。本文基于氢储能的理念,介绍了电解制氢的技术特点,概括了国内外近期质子交换膜水电解技术的发展态势,分析了新型电解水技术的发展方向,并提出了我国未来发展电解制氢技术与氢储能的建议。

关键词: 电解水     制氢     氢储能     可再生能源    

我国氢能产业发展战略研究

凌文,李全生,张凯

《中国工程科学》 2022年 第24卷 第3期   页码 80-88 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2022.03.009

摘要:

本文从“双碳”目标背景和氢能在我国构建清洁低碳、安全高效现代能源体系中的作用出发,系统梳理了全球氢能产业的进展情况,从氢能产业规模、产业特点、产业政策等方面分析了我国氢能源产业的发展现状、发展需求和面临的主要问题。当前,我国氢能产业战略布局不断强化,氢能基础设施领域投资逐步开展,区域产业集聚效应初步显现,但存在标准体系不健全、产业同质化苗头显现、产业链尚未打通且应用场景单一等挑战。研究建议:进一步加强氢能产业发展顶层设计,系统构建制氢、储氢及用氢技术标准体系,加大氢能全产业链的试点示范与推广,提升氢能科技创新,实现高水平自立自强,进而推动我国氢能产业高质量发展。

关键词: 氢能全产业链;碳中和;碳达峰;制氢;供氢;用氢    

Energy supply for water electrolysis systems using wind and solar energy to produce hydrogen: a case

Mostafa REZAEI, Ali MOSTAFAEIPOUR, Mojtaba QOLIPOUR, Mozhgan MOMENI

《能源前沿(英文)》 2019年 第13卷 第3期   页码 539-550 doi: 10.1007/s11708-019-0635-x

摘要: Due to acute problems caused by fossil fuels that threaten the environment, conducting research on other types of energy carriers that are clean and renewable is of great importance. Since in the past few years hydrogen has been introduced as the future fuel, the aim of this study is to evaluate wind and solar energy potentials in prone areas of Iran by the Weibull distribution function (WDF) and the Angstrom-Prescott (AP) equation for hydrogen production. To this end, the meteorological data of solar radiation and wind speed recorded at 10 m height in the time interval of 3 h in a five-year period have been used. The findings indicate that Manjil and Zahedan with yearly wind and solar energy densities of 6004 (kWh/m ) and 2247 (kWh/m ), respectively, have the greatest amount of energy among the other cities. After examining three different types of commercial wind turbines and photovoltaic (PV) systems, it becomes clear that by utilizing one set of Gamesa G47 turbine, 91 kg/d of hydrogen, which provides energy for 91 car/week, can be produced in Manjil and will save about 1347 L of gasoline in the week. Besides, by installing one thousand sets of X21-345 PV systems in Zahedan, 20 kg/d of hydrogen, enough for 20 cars per week, can be generated and 296 L of gasoline can be saved. Finally, the RETScreen software is used to calculate the annual CO emission reduction after replacing gasoline with the produced hydrogen.

关键词: wind energy     solar energy     water electrolysis     hydrogen production     Weibull distribution function (WDF)     Angstrom-Prescott (AP) equation    

Review on the design and optimization of hydrogen liquefaction processes

Liang YIN, Yonglin JU

《能源前沿(英文)》 2020年 第14卷 第3期   页码 530-544 doi: 10.1007/s11708-019-0657-4

摘要: The key technologies of liquefied hydrogen have been developing rapidly due to its prospective energy exchange effectiveness, zero emissions, and long distance and economic transportation. However, hydrogen liquefaction is one of the most energy-intensive industrial processes. A small reduction in energy consumption and an improvement in efficiency may decrease the operating cost of the entire process. In this paper, the detailed progress of design and optimization for hydrogen liquefaction in recent years are summarized. Then, based on the refrigeration cycles, the hydrogen liquefaction processes are divided into two parts, namely precooled liquefaction process and cascade liquefaction process. Among the existing technologies, the SEC of most hydrogen liquefaction processes is limited in the range of 5–8 (LH : liquid hydrogen). The exergy efficiencies of processes are around 40% to 60%. Finally, several future improvements for hydrogen liquefaction process design and optimization are proposed. The mixed refrigerants (MRs) as the working fluids of the process and the combination of the traditional hydrogen liquefaction process with the renewable energy technology will be the great prospects for development in near future.

关键词: hydrogen liquefaction     energy consumption     efficiency     optimization    

Energy distribution between liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen temperatures in a Stirling/pulse tube refrigerator

《能源前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第4期   页码 516-526 doi: 10.1007/s11708-022-0844-6

摘要: A two-stage gas-coupled Stirling/pulse tube refrigerator (SPR), whose first and second stages respectively involve Stirling and pulse tube refrigeration cycles, is a very promising spaceborne refrigerator. The SPR has many advantages, such as a compact structure, high reliability, and high performance, and is expected to become an essential refrigerator for space applications. In research regarding gas-coupled regenerative refrigerator, the energy flow distribution between the two stages, and optimal phase difference between the pressure wave and volume flow, are two critical parameters that could widely influence refrigerator performance. The effects of displacer displacement on the pressure wave, phase difference, acoustic power distribution, and inter-stage cooling capacity shift of the SPR have been investigated experimentally. Notably, to obtain the maximum first-stage cooling capacity, an inflection point in displacement exists. When the displacer displacement is larger than the inflection point, the cooling capacity could be distributed between the first and second stages. In the present study, an SPR was designed and manufactured to work between the liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen temperatures, which can be used to cool small-scale zero boil-off systems and space detectors. Under appropriate displacer displacement, the SPR can reach a no-load cooling temperature of 15.4 K and obtain 2.6 W cooling capacity at 70 K plus 0.1 W cooling capacity at 20 K with 160 W compressor input electric power.

关键词: Stirling/pulse tube refrigerator     displacer displacement     space application     phase shift     energy distribution    

The opportunity of membrane technology for hydrogen purification in the power to hydrogen (P2H) roadmap

Hiep Thuan Lu, Wen Li, Ehsan Soroodan Miandoab, Shinji Kanehashi, Guoping Hu

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第3期   页码 464-482 doi: 10.1007/s11705-020-1983-0

摘要: The global energy market is in a transition towards low carbon fuel systems to ensure the sustainable development of our society and economy. This can be achieved by converting the surplus renewable energy into hydrogen gas. The injection of hydrogen (≤10% v/v) in the existing natural gas pipelines is demonstrated to have negligible effects on the pipelines and is a promising solution for hydrogen transportation and storage if the end-user purification technologies for hydrogen recovery from hydrogen enriched natural gas (HENG) are in place. In this review, promising membrane technologies for hydrogen separation is revisited and presented. Dense metallic membranes are highlighted with the ability of producing 99.9999999% (v/v) purity hydrogen product. However, high operating temperature (≥300 °C) incurs high energy penalty, thus, limits its application to hydrogen purification in the power to hydrogen roadmap. Polymeric membranes are a promising candidate for hydrogen separation with its commercial readiness. However, further investigation in the enhancement of H /CH selectivity is crucial to improve the separation performance. The potential impacts of impurities in HENG on membrane performance are also discussed. The research and development outlook are presented, highlighting the essence of upscaling the membrane separation processes and the integration of membrane technology with pressure swing adsorption technology.

关键词: power to hydrogen     membrane technology     hydrogen     energy    

氢储能在我国新型电力系统中的应用价值、挑战及展望

许传博 ,刘建国

《中国工程科学》 2022年 第24卷 第3期   页码 89-99 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2022.03.010

摘要:

加快发展氢能产业,是应对实现“碳达峰、碳中和”目标和保障国家能源安全的战略选择。氢储能具有跨季节、跨区域和大规模存储的优势,同时具备一定的快速响应能力,在新型电力系统的“源网荷”各个环节均有很强的应用价值。本文剖析了氢储能相对其他储能技术的优势,阐述了新型电力系统对氢能的诉求,并构建了氢储能在新型电力系统“源网荷”中的应用价值体系。研究认为,氢储能在储存容量和放电时长等性能指标上可满足新型电力系统的要求,但在投资成本和转化效率方面与要求仍有一定差距;氢能系统与电力系统缺乏跨领域协同,氢储能在新型电力系统中的应用缺少相应的激励配套政策;在可再生能源制氢、电氢耦合运行控制和氢燃料电池发电等方面仍存在标准体系不健全甚至空白的问题。为此本文建议,现阶段应以效率高、成本低“电‒ 氢”广义氢储能方式为主,“电‒ 氢‒ 电”狭义氢储能方式为辅;充分发挥氢能市场、电力市场和碳市场力量,促进氢储能低碳低成本健康发展;积极探索氢能在不同距离尺度下的运输方式组合,解决氢能资源与负荷逆向分布难题;加快完善电氢耦合产业新型标准体系建设,抢占国际标准化制高点。

关键词: 氢储能;新型电力系统;氢储存技术;新能源发电    

Metal-based direct hydrogen generation as unconventional high density energy

Shuo XU, Jing LIU

《能源前沿(英文)》 2019年 第13卷 第1期   页码 27-53 doi: 10.1007/s11708-018-0603-x

摘要: Metals are unconventional hydrogen production materials which are of high energy densities. This paper comprehensively reviewed and digested the latest researches of the metal-based direct hydrogen generation and the unconventional energy utilization ways thus enabled. According to the metal activities, the reaction conditions of metals were generalized into three categories. The first ones refer to those which would violently react with water at ambient temperature. The second ones start to react with water after certain pretreatments. The third ones can only react with steam under somewhat harsh conditions. To interpret the metal-water reaction mechanisms at the molecular scale, the molecule dynamics simulation and computational quantum chemistry were introduced as representative theoretical analytical tools. Besides, the state-of-the-art of the metal-water reaction was presented with several ordinary metals as illustration examples, including the material treatment technologies and the evaluations of hydrogen evolution performances. Moreover, the energy capacities of various metals were summarized, and the application potentials of the metal-based direct hydrogen production approach were explored. Furthermore, the challenges lying behind this unconventional hydrogen generation method and energy strategy were raised, which outlined promising directions worth of further endeavors. Overall, active metals like Na and K are appropriate for rapid hydrogen production occasions. Of these metals discussed, Al, Mg and their alloys offer the most promising hydrogen generation route for clean and efficient propulsion and real-time power source. In the long run, there exists plenty of space for developing future energy technology along this direction.

关键词: metal     hydrogen generation     hydrolysis     metal water reaction     clean energy    

我国绿氢供应体系建设思考与建议

杜忠明,郑津洋,戴剑锋,施建峰,花争立,李博,张彤枫,侯孟婧

《中国工程科学》 2022年 第24卷 第6期   页码 64-71 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2022.06.005

摘要:

在碳中和战略目标引领下,能源生产消费方式转向绿色低碳,将推动氢能供应体系逐步以绿氢为基础进行重塑;绿氢将成为新能源供给消纳体系的重要组成部分,因而加强绿氢供应体系建设有助于能源生产消费方式变革。本文在阐述绿氢供应体系建设必要性的基础上,剖析了绿氢供应体系建设面临的挑战,如绿氢资源与需求空间分布不匹配、绿氢生产与消费时间特性不匹配、现有体制机制及标准与绿氢供应体系不匹配;凝练了强化氢储运关键基础问题研究、加快氢储运技术装备攻关、提升氢储运装备安全检测技术水平等重点研究方向,力求以氢储运环节的高质量发展支撑绿氢供应体系建设。研究提出,采用氢电融合发展的系统性思维,统筹构建我国绿氢供应体系;氢储运是连接上游电解水制氢、下游氢消纳应用的关键环节,在调节绿氢供需时空错配、实现绿氢灵活供应方面发挥重要作用。为此建议,注重顶层设计、统筹规划布局,建设基础设施、化解时空错配矛盾,开展试点示范、驱动技术创新,完善体制机制、营造发展环境,以此促进绿氢供应体系高质量建设。

关键词: 绿氢;氢能供应体系;氢储运;氢电融合    

用经典力学计算氢分子的键长键能及力常数

陈景

《中国工程科学》 2003年 第5卷 第6期   页码 39-43

摘要:

氢原子中1 s电子的电子云呈球形,电子的最大几率密度分布出现在玻尔半径a0的球壳内,认为几率密度分布及电子云属统计规律,意味着已经使用了宏观时标,这样就使氢分子体系中能量和时间的作用量远大于普郎克常数;根据电子云的交叠,用经典力学计算了基态氢分子的结构常数,获得键长、键能及力常数的表达式分别为Re = 〓a0,De = ze/4〓a0,k = ze/2〓,采用原子单位(a.u.)时z、e及a0均为1,获得Re=1.414 a.u.,De=0.177 a.u.,k=0.354 a.u.,这些数值与实验值的相对误差分别<1%,<2%和<4%;成键模型直观,物理意义明确,计算中不含任何人为性参数。

关键词: 氢分子     键长     键能     力常数    

我国氢动力船舶创新发展研究

童亮,袁裕鹏,李骁,严新平

《中国工程科学》 2022年 第24卷 第3期   页码 127-139 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2022.03.014

摘要:

航运业迅猛发展促使传统船舶的能耗与环境问题日益显现,氢动力船舶作为未来水路交通载运工具的发展方向之一将是实现水路交通领域碳达峰、碳中和目标的重要依托,因而研究我国氢动力船舶创新发展具有迫切性。本文梳理了氢动力船舶的发展现状,从氢动力船舶产业链发展态势、协同发展战略布局的视角完成了氢动力船舶产业布局研判;完成了发展氢动力船舶的技术经济可行性分析,覆盖氢和氨燃料、氢燃料电池、氢内燃机、基础设施、总拥有成本等角度;从氢气制取、氢气运输、大容量储氢、安全加氢、燃料电池、氢内燃机、多能源协同控制、氢应用安全等方面系统展开了氢动力船舶产业链关键环节分析。立足国情提出了我国氢动力船舶多阶段发展目标,论证形成了氢动力船舶发展路线图、氢燃料供应体系建设路径。研究建议,明晰应用场景、突破关键技术、完善配套设施、创新运营体系,以此推动我国氢动力船舶快速优质发展。

关键词: 船舶;氢动力;氢能;燃料电池;内燃机;氢燃料供应体系    

Automotive revolution and carbon neutrality

《能源前沿(英文)》   页码 693-703 doi: 10.1007/s11708-023-0890-8

摘要: The automotive industry is in the midst of a groundbreaking revolution, driven by the imperative to achieve intelligent driving and carbon neutrality. A crucial aspect of this transformation is the transition to electric vehicles (EVs), which necessitates widespread changes throughout the entire automotive ecosystem. This paper examines the challenges and opportunities of this transition, including automotive electrification, intelligence-connected transportation system, and the potential for new technologies such as hydrogen fuel cells. Meanwhile, it discusses the key technologies and progress of the hydrogen energy industry chain in the upstream hydrogen production, midstream hydrogen storage and transportation, downstream hydrogen station construction and hydrogen fuel cells in turn. Finally, it proposes the directions for future layout, providing guidance for future development.

关键词: automotive revolution     electric vehicles (EVs)     hydrogen energy     fuel cell    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

A systemic review of hydrogen supply chain in energy transition

期刊论文

Can energy storage make off-grid photovoltaic hydrogen production system more economical?

期刊论文

Photocatalysis: from solar light to hydrogen energy

期刊论文

电解制氢与氢储能

俞红梅, 衣宝廉

期刊论文

我国氢能产业发展战略研究

凌文,李全生,张凯

期刊论文

Energy supply for water electrolysis systems using wind and solar energy to produce hydrogen: a case

Mostafa REZAEI, Ali MOSTAFAEIPOUR, Mojtaba QOLIPOUR, Mozhgan MOMENI

期刊论文

Review on the design and optimization of hydrogen liquefaction processes

Liang YIN, Yonglin JU

期刊论文

Energy distribution between liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen temperatures in a Stirling/pulse tube refrigerator

期刊论文

The opportunity of membrane technology for hydrogen purification in the power to hydrogen (P2H) roadmap

Hiep Thuan Lu, Wen Li, Ehsan Soroodan Miandoab, Shinji Kanehashi, Guoping Hu

期刊论文

氢储能在我国新型电力系统中的应用价值、挑战及展望

许传博 ,刘建国

期刊论文

Metal-based direct hydrogen generation as unconventional high density energy

Shuo XU, Jing LIU

期刊论文

我国绿氢供应体系建设思考与建议

杜忠明,郑津洋,戴剑锋,施建峰,花争立,李博,张彤枫,侯孟婧

期刊论文

用经典力学计算氢分子的键长键能及力常数

陈景

期刊论文

我国氢动力船舶创新发展研究

童亮,袁裕鹏,李骁,严新平

期刊论文

Automotive revolution and carbon neutrality

期刊论文