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Facile route to achieve MoSe-NiSe on nickel foam as efficient dual functional electrocatalysts for overall water splitting

《能源前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第3期   页码 483-491 doi: 10.1007/s11708-022-0813-0

摘要: Since the catalytic activity of present nickel-based synthetic selenide is still to be improved, MoSe2-Ni3Se2 was synthesized on nickel foam (NF) (MoSe2-Ni3Se2/NF) by introducing a molybdenum source. After the molybdenum source was introduced, the surface of the catalyst changed from a single-phase structure to a multi-phase structure. The catalyst surface with enriched active sites and the synergistic effect of MoSe2 and Ni3Se2 together enhance the hydrogen evolution reactions (HER), the oxygen evolution reactions (OER), and electrocatalytic total water splitting activity of the catalyst. The overpotential of the MoSe2-Ni3Se2/NF electrocatalyst is only 259 mV and 395 mV at a current density of 100 mA/cm2 for HER and OER, respectively. MoSe2-Ni3Se2/NF with a two-electrode system attains a current density of 10 mA/cm2 at 1.60 V. In addition, the overpotential of HER and OER of MoSe2-Ni3Se2/NF within 80000 s and the decomposition voltage of electrocatalytic total water decomposition hardly changed, showing an extremely strong stability. The improvement of MoSe2-Ni3Se2/NF catalytic activity is attributed to the establishment of the multi-phase structure and the optimized inoculation of the multi-component and multi-interface.

关键词: three-dimensional molybdenum nanomaterials     hydrogen evolution reaction     oxygen evolution reaction     overall water splitting    

Inner strain determination of three-dimensional braided preforms with co-braided optical fiber sensors

LI Xianghua, LIU Xiaohui, YUAN Shenfang

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2008年 第3卷 第4期   页码 416-420 doi: 10.1007/s11465-008-0062-x

摘要: The experimental characterization of three-dimensional (3-D) braided composites is extremely important for their design and analysis. Because of their desirable attributes and outstanding performance, optical fiber sensors (OFSs) can be embedded to monitor mechanical properties of textile composites. This paper discusses two techniques to incorporate different OFSs into 3-D braided composite preforms. The operating principle of various sensor systems is first conducted. Experiments using Michelson interferometers, FBG sensors, and micro-bend sensors are performed to verify the concept of the proposed method. Strain curves of various OFSs tests are finally compared, and they all exhibit good linearity.

关键词: different     experimental characterization     three-dimensional     composite     micro-bend    

Numerical simulation of three-dimensional turbulent flow in multistage axial compressor blade row

JIANG Jian, LIU Bo, WANG Yangang, NAN Xiangyi

《能源前沿(英文)》 2008年 第2卷 第3期   页码 320-325 doi: 10.1007/s11708-008-0041-2

摘要: Numerical simulation of three-dimensional turbulent flow in a multistage axial compressor blade row is conducted. A high resolution, third-order ENN scheme is adopted to catch the shockwave and simulate the turbulent flow correctly,

关键词: simulation     compressor     multistage     third-order     three-dimensional turbulent    

Application of three-dimensional digitalized reconstruction of latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap

PEI Guoxian, ZHANG Yuanzhi, LI Jianwei, JIN Dan, CHEN Jionghao, LI Yanbing, ZHONG Shizhen

《医学前沿(英文)》 2008年 第2卷 第1期   页码 45-50 doi: 10.1007/s11684-008-0009-y

摘要: Developments of digital technology and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction allowed a precise description of anatomic structures. With the introduction of Visible Human Project and Virtual Chinese Human (VCH) techniques, more detailed anatomic images could be obtained. Digitized visible models of these structures can be applied as a useful tool in clinical training. The aim of this study was to reconstruct the normal structures of thoracodorsal artery in 3D images and to establish the digitized visible models of latissimus dorsi myocutaneous (LDM) flap. The cross-sectional images from the four VCH datasets were reviewed to study LDM and thoracodorsal artery structures on a section-by-section basis. Next, two adult fresh cadaver specimens were perfused with lead oxide-gelatine mixture and subject to radiographic CT scanning on their torsos. The cross-sectional images from the CT images were reviewed to study thoracodorsal artery structures. Three-dimensional computerized reconstructions of LDM flap structures were conducted from these datasets by using Amira 3.1 (TGS) software respectively. The 3D reconstructed visible models established from these datasets perfectly displayed the anatomic characteristics of LDM flap.

关键词: Digitized     digitized     software     three-dimensional     latissimus    

Development of rocking constraint device with vertical damping capacity for three-dimensional base-isolated

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第3期   页码 350-367 doi: 10.1007/s11709-022-0923-0

摘要: A new rocking constraint device (RCD) is developed for three-dimensional (3D) base-isolated frame structures by connecting a custom-designed cylinder pair to provide vertical damping with replaceable damping components installed outside the cylinders when the superstructure undergoes translational motion, and rocking constraint capacity when the superstructure is susceptible to rocking. Theoretical formulas for calculating the damping and rocking constraint stiffness of the RCD are proposed. Two series of sinusoidal loading tests are conducted at different loading frequencies and amplitudes to verify the damping and rocking constraint performance of the RCD. The test results show that the cylinder without orifices on its piston can provide the desired damping with a replaceable damping component, and that the RCD can effectively suppress rocking. Although the vertical stiffness of an individual cylinder is affected by the location of the replaceable damping component and loading frequency, the average vertical stiffness of the two cylinders, which determines the rocking constraint stiffness of the RCD, is independent of the two factors. Comparisons of the test and theoretical results indicate that the errors of the proposed formulas for calculating the damping and rocking constraint stiffness of the RCD do not exceed 12.9% and 11.0%, respectively.

关键词: three-dimensional isolation     rocking behavior     rocking constraint device     replaceable damping component     sinusoidal test    

Stability of three-dimensional printable foam concrete as function of surfactant characteristics

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》   页码 935-947 doi: 10.1007/s11709-023-0964-z

摘要: Extrudability is one of the most critical factors when designing three-dimensional printable foam concrete. The extrusion process likely affects the foam stability which necessitates the investigation into surfactant properties particularly for concrete mixes with high foam contents. Although many studies have been conducted on traditional foam concrete in this context, studies on three-dimensional printed foam concrete are scarce. To address this research gap, the effects of surfactant characteristics on the stability, extrudability, and buildability of three-dimensional printed foam concrete mixes with two design densities (1000 and 1300 kg/m3) using two different surfactants and stabilizers (synthetic-based sodium lauryl sulfate stabilized with carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt, and natural-based hingot surfactant stabilized with xanthan gum) were investigated in this study. Fresh density tests were conducted before and after the extrusion to determine stability of the foam concrete. The results were then correlated with surfactant qualities, such as viscosity and surface tension, to understand the importance of key parameters in three-dimensional printing of foam concrete. Based on the experimental results, surfactant solu1tion with viscosity exceeding 5 mPa·s and surface tension lower than 31 mN/m was recommended to yield stable three-dimensional printable foam concrete mixes. Nevertheless, the volume of foam in the mix significantly affected the printability characteristics. Unlike traditional foam concrete, the variation in the stabilizer concentration and density of concrete were found to have insignificant effect on the fresh-state-characteristics (slump, slump flow, and static yield stress) and air void microstructure of the stable mixes.

关键词: foam concrete     3D printable concrete     stability     rheology     air void microstructure    

Three-dimensional stability analysis of the dam foundation at Baise

XU Qianjun, LI Xu, CHEN Zuyu

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2007年 第1卷 第2期   页码 217-221 doi: 10.1007/s11709-007-0026-y

摘要: It is usually difficult to determine the actual safety factors of rock masses in an ordinary two-dimensional stability analysis if the safety factors of the different cross sections in the rock mass vary significantly. In addition to the actual slope, arch dam abutment, and the actual foundation of a high building, another example is that the different cross sections of the foundation in the monolith of a gravity dam vary significantly, just like the condition at the overflow dam in the Baise project. A three-dimensional stability analysis method based on the upper-bound theorem was employed to solve this problem. The parameters used in the analysis were obtained from geomechanics tests, as well as continuity simulations of the randomly distributed joints. Two failure patterns against sliding are analyzed. One pattern is the foundation slide along deep-seated planes which were determined by calculations. The other pattern is the foundation slide along the planes across the bottom of the high steps in the foundation pit. The results indicate that a special overflow dam monolith can be considered to be safe in case of considering the three dimensional effect. However, a key wall with a depth of 5m must be constructed at the upper side of this monolith in order to ensure the safety of the foundation.

关键词: ordinary two-dimensional     randomly     monolith     three-dimensional stability     different    

A three-dimensional two-level gradient smoothing meshfree method for rainfall induced landslide simulations

Dongdong WANG, Jiarui WANG, Junchao WU, Junjun DENG, Ming SUN

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第13卷 第2期   页码 337-352 doi: 10.1007/s11709-018-0467-5

摘要: A three-dimensional two-level gradient smoothing meshfree method is presented for rainfall induced landslide simulations. The two-level gradient smoothing for meshfree shape function is elaborated in the three-dimensional Lagrangian setting with detailed implementation procedure. It is shown that due to the successive gradient smoothing operation without the requirement of derivative computation in the present formulation, the two-level smoothed gradient of meshfree shape function is capable of achieving a given influence domain more efficiently than the standard gradient of meshfree shape function. Subsequently, the two-level smoothed gradient of meshfree shape function is employed to discretize the weak form of coupled rainfall seepage and soil motion equations in a nodal integration format, as provides an efficient three-dimensional regularized meshfree formulation for large deformation rainfall induced landslide simulations. The exponential damage and pressure dependent plasticity relationships are utilized to describe the failure evolution in landslides. The plastic response of soil is characterized by the true effective stress measure, which is updated according to the rotationally neutralized objective integration algorithm. The effectiveness of the present three-dimensional two-level gradient smoothing meshfree method is demonstrated through numerical examples.

关键词: meshfree method     landslide     rainfall     three-dimensional two-level gradient smoothing     nodal integration    

Thermal analysis of lubricated three-dimensional contact bodies considering interface roughness

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第17卷 第2期 doi: 10.1007/s11465-022-0672-8

摘要: Surface roughness and thermal action are of remarkable importance in the lubrication performance of mechanical components, especially in extreme conditions. However, available studies mainly focus on the full-film lubrication conditions without considering temperature rise and real 3D surface roughness due to the complexity of surface topography and temperature characteristics. Moreover, studies on the interfacial thermal behaviors of 3D rough surface lubricated contact in an extended range of working conditions remain limited. In this paper, a deterministic mixed thermal elastohydrodynamic lubrication model considering real 3D surface roughness and thermal effects is proposed. In this model, pressure and temperature are coupled with each other, the computation of elastic deformation is accelerated through the discrete convolution and fast Fourier transform method, the temperature field is calculated with the column sweeping technique, and the semi-system method is introduced to improve convergence and numerical stability under severe conditions. The model is validated by comparing its results with available published numerical and experimental results. The thermal behaviors of the contact interface are studied in a wide range of working conditions. The influences of surface roughness and thermal effect on lubrication performance are revealed. The results show that the proposed model can be used as a powerful analysis tool for lubrication performance and temperature prediction in various heavy-load, high-speed lubricated components over a wide range of lubrication conditions.

关键词: thermal elastohydrodynamic lubrication     surface roughness effect     thermal effect     temperature characteristics     severe conditions    

Three-dimensional numerical simulation of the basic pulse tube refrigerator

DING Wenjing, GONG Liang, HE Yaling, TAO Wenquan

《能源前沿(英文)》 2008年 第2卷 第1期   页码 48-53 doi: 10.1007/s11708-008-0008-3

摘要: A three-dimensional physical and numerical model of the basic pulse tube refrigerator (PTR) was developed. The compressible and oscillating fluid flow and heat transfer phenomenon in the pulse tube were numerically investigated using a self-developed code. Some cross-section average parameter variations such as velocity, temperature and pressure wave during one cycle were revealed. The variations of velocity and temperature distributions in the pulse tube were also analyzed in detail for further understanding of the working process and refrigeration mechanism of PTRs.

关键词: refrigeration mechanism     three-dimensional     compressible     numerical     understanding    

Fabrication of Si-based three-dimensional microbatteries: A review

Chuang YUE, Jing LI, Liwei LIN

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第12卷 第4期   页码 459-476 doi: 10.1007/s11465-017-0462-x

摘要:

High-performance, Si-based three-dimensional (3D) microbattery systems for powering micro/nano-electromechanical systems and lab-on-chip smart electronic devices have attracted increasing research attention. These systems are characterized by compatible fabrication and integratibility resulting from the silicon-based technologies used in their production. The use of support substrates, electrodes or current collectors, electrolytes, and even batteries used in 3D layouts has become increasingly important in fabricating microbatteries with high energy, high power density, and wide-ranging applications. In this review, Si-based 3D microbatteries and related fabrication technologies, especially the production of micro-lithium ion batteries, are reviewed and discussed in detail in order to provide guidance for the design and fabrication.

关键词: three-dimensional (3D)     wafer-scale     Si-based anode     micro-LIBs     thin-film deposition    

三维芯片成像

Marcus Woo

《工程(英文)》 2020年 第6卷 第5期   页码 485-486 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2020.03.009

Discrete ordinates method for three-dimensional neutron transport equation based on unstructured-meshes

JU Haitao, WU Hongchun, YAO Dong, XIAN Chunyu

《能源前沿(英文)》 2008年 第2卷 第2期   页码 179-182 doi: 10.1007/s11708-008-0024-3

摘要: A discrete ordinates method for a three-dimensional first-order neutron transport equation based on unstructured-meshes that avoids the singularity of the second-order neutron transport equation in void regions was derived. The finite element variation equation was obtained using the least-squares method. A three-dimensional transport calculation code was developed. Both the triangular-z and the tetrahedron elements were included. The numerical results of some benchmark problems demonstrated that this method can solve neutron transport problems in unstructured-meshes very well. For most problems, the error of the eigenvalue and the angular flux is less than 0.3% and 3.0% respectively.

Application of a vertex chain operation algorithm on topological analysis of three-dimensional fractured

Zixin ZHANG, Jia WU, Xin HUANG

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第11卷 第2期   页码 187-208 doi: 10.1007/s11709-017-0391-0

摘要: Identifying the morphology of rock blocks is vital to accurate modelling of rock mass structures. This paper applies the concepts of directed edges and vertex chain operations which are typical for block tracing approach to block assembling approach to construct the structure of three-dimensional fractured rock masses. Polygon subtraction and union algorithms that rely merely on vertex chain operation are proposed, which allow a fast and convenient construction of complex faces/loops. Apart from its robustness in dealing with finite discontinuities and complex geometries, the advantages of the current methodology in tackling some challenging issues associated with the morphological analysis of rock blocks are addressed. In particular, the identification of complex blocks with interior voids such as cavity, pit and torus can be readily achieved based on the number and the type of loops. The improved morphology visualization approach can benefit the pre-processing stage when analyzing the stability of rock masses subject to various engineering impacts using the block theory and the discrete element method.

关键词: morphology     block assembling     vertex operation     discontinuities    

Three-dimensional composite Li metal anode by simple mechanical modification for high-energy batteries

《能源前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第5期   页码 569-584 doi: 10.1007/s11708-023-0875-7

摘要: Lithium (Li) metal is believed to be the “Holy Grail” among all anode materials for next-generation Li-based batteries due to its high theoretical specific capacity (3860 mAh/g) and lowest redox potential (−3.04 V). Disappointingly, uncontrolled dendrite formation and “hostless” deposition impede its further development. It is well accepted that the construction of three-dimensional (3D) composite Li metal anode could tackle the above problems to some extent by reducing local current density and maintaining electrode volume during cycling. However, most strategies to build 3D composite Li metal anode require either electrodeposition or melt-infusion process. In spite of their effectiveness, these procedures bring multiple complex processing steps, high temperature, and harsh experimental conditions which cannot meet the actual production demand in consideration of cost and safety. Under this condition, a novel method to construct 3D composite anode via simple mechanical modification has been recently proposed which does not involve harsh conditions, fussy procedures, or fancy equipment. In this mini review, a systematic and in-depth investigation of this mechanical deformation technique to build 3D composite Li metal anode is provided. First, by summarizing a number of recent studies, different mechanical modification approaches are classified clearly according to their specific procedures. Then, the effect of each individual mechanical modification approach and its working mechanisms is reviewed. Afterwards, the merits and limits of different approaches are compared. Finally, a general summary and perspective on construction strategies for next-generation 3D composite Li anode are presented.

关键词: lithium (Li)-ion battery (LIB)     Li metal battery     three-dimensional (3D) composite Li metal anode     mechanical modification     reducing local current density    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Facile route to achieve MoSe-NiSe on nickel foam as efficient dual functional electrocatalysts for overall water splitting

期刊论文

Inner strain determination of three-dimensional braided preforms with co-braided optical fiber sensors

LI Xianghua, LIU Xiaohui, YUAN Shenfang

期刊论文

Numerical simulation of three-dimensional turbulent flow in multistage axial compressor blade row

JIANG Jian, LIU Bo, WANG Yangang, NAN Xiangyi

期刊论文

Application of three-dimensional digitalized reconstruction of latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap

PEI Guoxian, ZHANG Yuanzhi, LI Jianwei, JIN Dan, CHEN Jionghao, LI Yanbing, ZHONG Shizhen

期刊论文

Development of rocking constraint device with vertical damping capacity for three-dimensional base-isolated

期刊论文

Stability of three-dimensional printable foam concrete as function of surfactant characteristics

期刊论文

Three-dimensional stability analysis of the dam foundation at Baise

XU Qianjun, LI Xu, CHEN Zuyu

期刊论文

A three-dimensional two-level gradient smoothing meshfree method for rainfall induced landslide simulations

Dongdong WANG, Jiarui WANG, Junchao WU, Junjun DENG, Ming SUN

期刊论文

Thermal analysis of lubricated three-dimensional contact bodies considering interface roughness

期刊论文

Three-dimensional numerical simulation of the basic pulse tube refrigerator

DING Wenjing, GONG Liang, HE Yaling, TAO Wenquan

期刊论文

Fabrication of Si-based three-dimensional microbatteries: A review

Chuang YUE, Jing LI, Liwei LIN

期刊论文

三维芯片成像

Marcus Woo

期刊论文

Discrete ordinates method for three-dimensional neutron transport equation based on unstructured-meshes

JU Haitao, WU Hongchun, YAO Dong, XIAN Chunyu

期刊论文

Application of a vertex chain operation algorithm on topological analysis of three-dimensional fractured

Zixin ZHANG, Jia WU, Xin HUANG

期刊论文

Three-dimensional composite Li metal anode by simple mechanical modification for high-energy batteries

期刊论文