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Frontiers in Energy >> 2022, Volume 16, Issue 1 doi: 10.1007/s11708-021-0732-5

Applications of thermostatically controlled loads for demand response with the proliferation of variable renewable energy

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, USA

Accepted: 2021-03-22 Available online: 2021-03-22

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More flexibility is desirable with the proliferation of variable renewable resources for balancing supply and demand in power systems. Thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) attract tremendous attentions because of their specific thermal inertia capability in demand response (DR) programs. To effectively manage numerous and distributed TCLs, intermediate coordinators, e.g., aggregators, as a bridge between end users and dispatch operators are required to model and control TCLs for serving the grid. Specifically, intermediate coordinators get the access to fundamental models and response modes of TCLs, make control strategies, and distribute control signals to TCLs according the requirements of dispatch operators. On the other hand, intermediate coordinators also provide dispatch models that characterize the external characteristics of TCLs to dispatch operators for scheduling different resources. In this paper, the bottom-up key technologies of TCLs in DR programs based on the current research have been reviewed and compared, including fundamental models, response modes, control strategies, dispatch models and dispatch strategies of TCLs, as well as challenges and opportunities in future work.

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