Ensuring the quality and safety of agricultural products is one of the basic requirements of building a moderately prosperous society and it is related to the development of agriculture and the countryside as well as people’s health and safety. The Internet Plus initiative has accelerated the building of quality and safety standards and traceability systems for agricultural products. Overall, the quality and safety risks of agricultural products have been effectively controlled. However, there remain many problems, such as ambiguity of power and duties of government oversight, severe segmentation of different regions, poor uniformity in traceability standards, lack of width, depth, and accuracy of traceability information, weak commercial operation capacity, and insufficient sustainability of traceability systems. This study reviews the progress in agricultural product quality and safety with respect to supervision system, laws and regulations, standards system construction, and traceability technology/system development in China, then analyzes the main problems, and finally proposes potential solutions to achieve the development objectives for 2025 and 2035. We propose promoting the standardization of information traceability, improving the national traceability system, deepening risk monitoring and warning, widening the practical fields and service products, focusing on research of traceability technology, and paying attention to professional training. By this means, we hope that China can realize the long-term goals of building a sustainable traceability system with positive cycle and modernizing the national management system of agricultural product quality and safety in 2035.