Human is the most dynamic factor in a manufacturing system; no matter how advanced intelligent manufacturing would be, it should meet humans’ needs and serve for a better life. Based on the theory of human–cyber–physical systems (HCPS) in the context of intelligent manufacturing, the concept of human-centered intelligent manufacturing (HCIM) is firstly proposed in this work. HCIM is discussed from the aspects of background, connotation, human factors, technical system, and practical applications. It clarifies that HCIM not only reflects an important perspective, but also represents one of the significant research directions of intelligent manufacturing. On this basis, several suggestions are recommended from policy decision-making, enterprise development, and scientific research levels, including linking HCIM with relevant national strategies, regarding HCIM as a key concept for enterprises’development, and enhancing research on human factors/ergonomics in intelligent manufacturing systems. It’s expected that this work can provide a reference to promote HCIM development and applications in China.