Journal Home Online First Current Issue Archive For Authors Journal Information 中文版

Strategic Study of CAE >> 2021, Volume 23, Issue 4 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2021.04.018

Development Trends and Suggestions of Nucleic Acid Vaccines

1. Institute of Medical Information, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100020, China;

2. Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100005, China

Funding project:中国工程院咨询项目“工程科技颠覆性技术战略研究(二期)” (2019-ZD-27) Received: 2021-04-25 Revised: 2021-07-02 Available online: 2021-08-03

Next Previous


Considering the urgent needs of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic prevention and control, nucleic acid vaccine has attracted great attention in the vaccine research and development (R&D) field owing to its high efficiency and good efficacy. Particularly, the R&D process of messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine has significantly accelerated, and the mRNA vaccine was approved for the first time to be marketed and used in humans. This article first summarizes the R&D status of nucleic acid vaccines from the aspects of related technical concept, R&D path, and development trend, and identifies the characteristics of nucleic acid vaccines. Subsequently, it analyzes the impact of COVID-19 outbreak on the mRNA vaccine research, summarizes the main fields of application of nucleic acid vaccines, and studies the possible technical and safety problems. Furthermore, we suggest that the key technologies of nucleic acid vaccines should be developed by improving the target gene expression, delivery system, immune response, and mRNA stability and storage. Moreover, the safety and efficacy of nucleic acid vaccines should be strictly monitored; stakeholders should conduct research on mRNA vaccine technologies that have safety risks and potentially disruptive effects on cancer and infectious disease prevention and control; and a forward-looking technological layout and technical transformation should be emphasized.


Fig. 1

Fig. 2

Fig. 3

Fig. 4


[ 1 ] 谢华玲, 陈芳, Liu C, 等. 全球疫苗研发态势分析 [J]. 中国生物 工程杂志, 2019, 39(5): 35–42. Xie H L, Chen F, Liu C, et al. Analysis of global vaccines development situation [J]. China Biotechnology, 2019, 39(5): 35–42. link1

[ 2 ] 杨益隆, 徐俊杰. 新型疫苗研发与下一代技术 [J]. 生物产业技 术, 2017 (2): 43–50. Yang Y L, Xu J J. Novel vaccine development and next generation technology of vaccine design [J]. Biotechnology & Business, 2017 (2): 43–50. link1

[ 3 ] Wolff J A, Malone R W, Williams P, et al. Direct gene transfer into mouse muscle in vivo [J]. Science, 1990, 247(4949): 1465–1468. link1

[ 4 ] 刘君, 刘凤华, 吴海岚, 等. 全球冠状病毒疫苗研发态势分析 [J]. 中华实验和临床病毒学杂志, 2020, 34(4): 357–366. Liu J, Liu F H, Wu H L, et al. Analysis of global coronavirus vaccines development situation [J]. Chinese Journal of Experimental and Clinical Virology, 2020, 34(4): 357–366. link1

[ 5 ] 葛华, 蒋丽勇, 刘术, 等. COVID-19 DNA疫苗关键技术与产品 进展分析 [J]. 军事医学, 2020, 44(5): 349–353. Ge H, Jiang L Y, Liu S, et al. Progress in key technologies and products of COVID-19 DNA vaccine [J]. Military Medical Sciences, 2020, 44(5): 349–353. link1

[ 6 ] 葛华, 蒋丽勇, 刘术, 等. COVID-19 mRNA疫苗关键技术与产品 进展分析 [J]. 军事医学, 2020, 44(4): 264–268. Ge H, Jiang L Y, Liu S, et al. Progress in key technologies and products of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine [J]. Military Medical Sciences, 2020, 44(4): 264–268. link1

[ 7 ] Xu S Q, Yang K P, Li R, et al. mRNA vaccine era mechanisms, drug platform and clinical prospection [J]. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2020, 21(18): 1–10. link1

[ 8 ] 胡瞬, 易有金, 胡涛, 等. mRNA疫苗的开发及临床研究进展 [J]. 中国生物工程杂志, 2019, 39(11): 105–112. Hu S, Yi Y J, Hu T, et al. Development and clinical progress of mRNA vaccine J]. China Biotechnology, 2019, 39(11): 105–112. link1

[ 9 ] 李学荣, 余新炳. 核酸疫苗及其免疫机制研究 [J]. 中国人兽共 患病杂志, 2000, 16(6): 82–86. Li X R, Yu X B. Study on the immune mechanism of nucleic acid vaccine [J]. Chinese Journal of Zoonoses, 2000, 16(6): 82–86. link1

[10] Wolff J A, Ludtke J J, Acsadi G, et al. Long-term persistence of plasmid DNA and foreign gene expression in mouse muscle [J]. Human Molecular Genetics, 1992, 1(6): 363–369. link1

[11] Coolen A L, Lacroix C, Mercier-Gouy P, et al. Poly (lactic acid) nanoparticles and cell-penetrating peptide potentiate mRNA-based vaccine expression in dendritic cells triggering their activation [J]. Biomaterials, 2019, 195: 23–37. link1

[12] Williams R S, Johnston S A, Riedy M, et al. Introduction of foreign genes into tissues of living mice by DNA-coated microprojectiles [J]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 1991, 88(7): 2726–2730. link1

[13] Tang D C, DeVit M, Johnston S A. Genetic immunization is a simple method for eliciting an immune response [J]. Nature, 1992, 356(6365): 152–154. link1

[14] Ulmer J B, Donnelly J J, Parker S E, et al. Heterologous protection against influenza by injection of DNA encoding a viral protein [J]. Science, 1993, 259(5102): 1745–1749. link1

[15] Sahin U, Derhovanessian E, Miller M, et al. Personalized RNA mutanome vaccines mobilize poly-specific therapeutic immunity against cancer [J]. Nature, 2017, 547(7662): 222–226.. link1

[16] 范红, 于振行, 苏月, 等. 疫苗技术的研究进展和分析[J]. 中国新 药杂志, 2019, 28(14): 1665–1669. Fan H, Yu Z X, Su Y, et al. General analysis of the advances in vaccine technology [J]. Chinese Journal of New Drugs, 2019, 28(14): 1665–1669. link1

Related Research