Vaccine therapies for chronic hepatitis B: can we go further?
Chronic hepatitis B is a major health burden worldwide. In addition to the recent progress in antiviral treatment, therapeutic vaccination is a promising new strategy for the control of chronic hepatitis B. On the basis of the major specific and non-specific immune dysregulations and defects in chronic hepatitis B patients, this paper presents the peptide and protein-based, DNA-based, cell-based, and antigen-antibody-based therapeutic vaccines, which have undergone clinical trials. The advantages, disadvantages, and future perspectives for these therapeutic vaccines are discussed.