Available online: 2023-03-06
A multi-functional porous paper-based material was prepared from grass pulp by simple pore-forming and green cross-linking method. As a pore-forming agent, calcium citrate increased the porosity of the paper-based material from 30% to 69% while retaining the mechanical strength. The covalent cross-linking of citric acid between cellulose fibers improved both the wet strength and adsorption capacity. In addition, owing to the introduction of high-content carboxyl groups as well as the construction of hierarchical micro-nano structure, the underwater oil contact angle was up to 165°. The separation efficiency of the emulsified oil was 99.3%, and the water flux was up to 2020 L·m–2·h–1. The theoretical maximum adsorption capacities of cadmium ion, lead ion and methylene blue reached 136, 229 and 128.9 mg·g–1, respectively. The continuous purification of complex wastewater can be achieved by using paper-based materials combined with filtration technology. This work provides a simple, low cost and environmental approach for the treatment of complex wastewater containing insoluble oil, organic dyes, and heavy metal ions.