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High cadmium pollution risk on vegetable amaranth and a selection for pollution-safe cultivars to lower

Yihui ZHOU, Meng XUE, Zhongyi YANG, Yulian GONG, Jiangang YUAN, Chunyan ZHOU, Baifei HUANG

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2013年 第7卷 第2期   页码 219-230 doi: 10.1007/s11783-012-0469-9

摘要: A pot experiment was carried out by growing 29 different genotypes ( spp.) of vegetable amaranth under low- (0.12 mg·kg ) and middle- (0.40 mg·kg ) cadmium (Cd) exposure. The result showed that amaranth was vulnerable to cadmium (Cd) contamination in soil. Variations of Cd concentrations in both roots and edible parts among genotypes were significant ( <0.001) in both treatments. Cd concentrations in edible parts of the tested genotypes grown under low- and middle-Cd levels were significantly correlated ( <0.01), implying that Cd-accumulating property of amaranth is genotype-dependent. Differences in Cd chemical forms between cv. Nanxingdayemashixian (cv. Nan), a selected typical pollution-safe cultivar (Cd-PSC), and cv. Pennongjianyexian (cv. Pen), a selected typical non-Cd-PSC, under different Cd exposure conditions were compared. It was found that the alternation of Cd in F (Cd form extracted by 1 mol·L NaCl) may be a key factor in regulating Cd accumulation of different amaranth genotypes and that the protein-binding Cd is considered to be associated with Cd translocation. The results indicated that amaranth is capable of enduring high level of Cd pollution when grown as vegetable crop, and accordingly, consuming vegetable amaranth would bring high health risk. Therefore, adopting Cd-PSC strategy would help reducing the risk of Cd pollution in amaranth. In this study, cv. Nan was identified as a Cd-PSC and recommended to be applied production practice.

关键词: Amaranth     Cadmium (Cd)     Cd accumulation     pollution-safe cultivar (PSC)     Cd chemical forms     health risk    

我国城镇污泥安全处置与资源化研究

戴晓虎,侯立安,章林伟,张林,杨东海

《中国工程科学》 2022年 第24卷 第5期   页码 145-153 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2022.05.017

摘要:

污泥作为污水处理的过程产物,具有“污染”“资源”双重属性,对其开展妥善处置是污水处理减污降碳的重要任务。虽然我国污泥处理经历了“重水轻泥”向“泥水并重”的转变,技术与标准体系发展迅速,但在生态文明建设,碳达峰、碳中和目标的背景下,污泥处理处置仍存在亟待突破的短板弱项。本文梳理了城镇污泥产量和泥质特征、处理处置技术、政策标准体系的发展现状,凝练了污泥处理处置在管理体系、技术标准、路线选择等方面存在的突出问题;结合我国所处的发展阶段和国际发展趋势,提出了“绿色低碳、资源循环、环境友好、因地制宜”的发展理念以及相应的重点举措。研究建议,加强顶层设计,统筹设施规划布局,因地制宜选择处理处置路线;健全污泥处理处置的标准体系,完善价格补贴机制,强化责任分工与监管机制;补短板、强弱项,提升全链条集成水平,形成可推广的技术模式;面向未来实施前沿技术攻关,推动污泥处理处置与资源化技术装备创新升级。

关键词: 污水厂污泥;污泥处理;污染控制;资源回收;减污降碳    

Demonstration project of safe and efficient mining operations in extra-thick coal seam

Jinhui WANG

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2017年 第4卷 第1期   页码 110-110 doi: 10.15302/J-FEM-2016063

摘要:

Urban constructed wetlands: Assessing ecosystem services and disservices for safe, resilient, and sustainable

《工程管理前沿(英文)》   页码 582-596 doi: 10.1007/s42524-023-0268-y

摘要: Climate change and rapid urbanization are pressing environmental and social concerns, with approximately 56% of the global population living in urban areas. This number is expected to rise to 68% by 2050, leading to the expansion of cities and encroachment upon natural areas, including wetlands, causing their degradation and fragmentation. To mitigate these challenges, green and blue infrastructures (GBIs), such as constructed wetlands, have been proposed to emulate and replace the functions of natural wetlands. This study evaluates the potential of eight constructed wetlands near Beijing, China, focusing on their ecosystem services (ESs), cost savings related to human health, growing/maintenance expenses, and disservices using an emergy-based assessment procedure. The results indicate that all constructed wetlands effectively purify wastewater, reducing nutrient concentrations (e.g., total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total suspended solids). Among the studied wetlands, the integrated vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland (CW-4) demonstrates the highest wastewater purification capability (1.63E+14 sej/m2/yr) compared to other types (6.78E+13 and 2.08E+13 sej/m2/yr). Additionally, constructed wetlands contribute to flood mitigation, groundwater recharge, wildlife habitat protection, and carbon sequestration, resembling the functions of natural wetlands. However, the implementation of constructed wetlands in cities is not without challenges, including greenhouse gas emissions, green waste management, mosquito issues, and disturbances in the surrounding urban areas, negatively impacting residents. The ternary phase diagram reveals that all constructed wetlands provide more benefits than costs and impacts. CW-4 shows the highest benefit‒cost ratio, reaching 50%, while free water surface constructed wetland (CW-3) exhibits the lowest benefits (approximately 38%), higher impacts (approximately 25%), and lower costs (approximately 37%) compared to other wetlands. The study advocates the use of an emergy approach as a reliable method to assess the quality of constructed wetlands, providing valuable insights for policymakers in selecting suitable constructed wetlands for effective urban ecological management.

关键词: constructed wetland     emergy     ecosystem services     disservices     ternary diagram    

Multiresolution and multimaterial topology optimization of fail-safe structures under B-spline spaces

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第18卷 第4期 doi: 10.1007/s11465-023-0768-9

摘要: This study proposes a B-spline-based multiresolution and multimaterial topology optimization (TO) design method for fail-safe structures (FSSs), aiming to achieve efficient and lightweight structural design while ensuring safety and facilitating the postprocessing of topological structures. The approach involves constructing a multimaterial interpolation model based on an ordered solid isotropic material with penalization (ordered-SIMP) that incorporates fail-safe considerations. To reduce the computational burden of finite element analysis, we adopt a much coarser analysis mesh and finer density mesh to discretize the design domain, in which the density field is described by the B-spline function. The B-spline can efficiently and accurately convert optimized FSSs into computer-aided design models. The 2D and 3D numerical examples demonstrate the significantly enhanced computational efficiency of the proposed method compared with the traditional SIMP approach, and the multimaterial TO provides a superior structural design scheme for FSSs. Furthermore, the postprocessing procedures are significantly streamlined.

关键词: multiresolution     multimaterial     topology optimization     fail-safe structure     B-spline    

Optimising the oil phases of aluminium hydrogel-stabilised emulsions for stable, safe and efficient vaccine

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第6期   页码 973-984 doi: 10.1007/s11705-021-2123-1

摘要: To increase antibody secretion and dose sparing, squalene-in-water aluminium hydrogel (alum)-stabilised emulsions (ASEs) have been developed, which offer increased surface areas and cellular interactions for higher antigen loading and enhanced immune responses. Nevertheless, the squalene (oil) in previous attempts suffered from limited oxidation resistance, thus, safety and stability were compromised. From a clinical translational perspective, it is imperative to screen the optimal oils for enhanced emulsion adjuvants. Here, because of the varying oleic to linoleic acid ratio, soybean oil, peanut oil, and olive oil were utilised as oil phases in the preparation of aluminium hydrogel-stabilised squalene-in-water emulsions, which were then screened for their stability and immunogenicity. Additionally, the underlying mechanisms of oil phases and emulsion stability were unravelled, which showed that a higher oleic to linoleic acid ratio increased anti-oxidative capabilities but reduced the long-term storage stability owing to the relatively low zeta potential of the prepared droplets. As a result, compared with squalene-in-water ASEs, soybean-in-water ASEs exhibited comparable immune responses and enhanced stability. By optimising the oil phase of the emulsion adjuvants, this work may offer an alternative strategy for safe, stable, and effective emulsion adjuvants.

关键词: pickering emulsion     vaccine adjuvant     alum-stabilised emulsion     oleic to linoleic acid ratio     stability    

Evolutionary Decision-Making and Planning for Autonomous Driving Based on Safe and Rational Exploration

Kang Yuan,Yanjun Huang,Shuo Yang,Zewei Zhou,Yulei Wang,Dongpu Cao,Hong Chen,

《工程(英文)》 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2023.03.018

摘要: Decision-making and motion planning are extremely important in autonomous driving to ensure safe driving in a real-world environment. This study proposes an online evolutionary decision-making and motion planning framework for autonomous driving based on a hybrid data- and model-driven method. First, a data-driven decision-making module based on deep reinforcement learning (DRL) is developed to pursue a rational driving performance as much as possible. Then, model predictive control (MPC) is employed to execute both longitudinal and lateral motion planning tasks. Multiple constraints are defined according to the vehicle’s physical limit to meet the driving task requirements. Finally, two principles of safety and rationality for the self-evolution of autonomous driving are proposed. A motion envelope is established and embedded into a rational exploration and exploitation scheme, which filters out unreasonable experiences by masking unsafe actions so as to collect high-quality training data for the DRL agent. Experiments with a high-fidelity vehicle model and MATLAB/Simulink co-simulation environment are conducted, and the results show that the proposed online-evolution framework is able to generate safer, more rational, and more efficient driving action in a real-world environment.

关键词: Autonomous driving     Decision-making     Motion planning     Deep reinforcement learning     Model predictive control    

建设安全可靠、清洁环保型炼化企业

张树才,张晓华,贾萍,王倩,曹湘洪

《中国工程科学》 2019年 第21卷 第2期   页码 111-116 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2019.02.014

摘要:

针对城镇人口密集区等敏感地区炼油与化工企业搬迁改造的问题,在调研国外炼油与化工行业安全环保管理的先进经验的基础上,定义了安全可靠、清洁环保炼油与化工企业的内涵、指标体系和评估方法,提出构建安全可靠、清洁环保型炼油化工企业是解决问题的根本方法。以此为指导,开展了两家不同规模的炼油与化工企业案例研究,证明了本方法的可行性。建议有关部门强制采用科学方法计算外部安全距离和环境防护距离,并长期遵守,避免形成城围石化的现象;对敏感地区炼油与化工企业是异地搬迁还是按照安全可靠、清洁环保的指标要求就地改造,要通过认真的方案研究后科学决策。

关键词: 安全可靠     清洁     环保     炼油     化工     外部距离    

高土石坝安全建设重大技术问题

马洪琪, 迟福东

《工程(英文)》 2016年 第2卷 第4期   页码 498-509 doi: 10.1016/J.ENG.2016.04.001

摘要:

土石坝由于对地基具有良好的适应性、能就地取材及充分利用建筑物开挖渣料、造价较低、水泥用量较少等优点,是西部地区一批拟建高坝的重点比选坝型。糯扎渡高心墙堆石坝的成功建设,解决了250 m 级土石坝重大关键技术难题。本文通过系统总结已建成的糯扎渡等高心墙堆石坝建设的经验,凝练高土石坝建设面临的变形控制、渗流控制、坝坡抗滑稳定、泄洪安全及控制、大坝安全建设与质量控制、安全评价及预警等关键科学技术问题,全面深入论述了已有的研究成果和基本结论,为未来300 m 级高土石坝建设提供参考和重要的技术支撑。

关键词: 高土石坝     安全建设     重大技术问题    

Homoharringtonine is a safe and effective substitute for anthracyclines in children younger than 2 years

Xiaoxiao Chen, Yanjing Tang, Jing Chen, Ru Chen, Longjun Gu, Huiliang Xue, Ci Pan, Jingyan Tang, Shuhong Shen

《医学前沿(英文)》 2019年 第13卷 第3期   页码 378-387 doi: 10.1007/s11684-018-0658-4

摘要: Homoharringtonine (HHT), a plant alkaloid from , exhibits a unique anticancer mechanism and has been widely used in China to treat patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) since the 1970s. Trial SCMC-AML-2009 presented herein was a randomized clinical study designed based on our previous findings that pediatric AML patients younger than two years old may benefit from HHT-containing chemotherapy regimens. Patients randomized to arm A were treated with a standard chemotherapy regimen comprising mainly of anthracyclines and cytarabine (Ara-C), whereas patients in arm B were treated with HHT-containing regimens in which anthracyclines in all but the initial induction therapy were replaced by HHT. From February 2009 to November 2015, 59 patients less than 2 years old with AML (other than acute promyelocytic leukemia) were recruited. A total of 42 patients achieved a morphologic complete remission (CR) after the first course, with similar rates in both arms (70.6% vs.72.0%). At the end of the follow-up period, 40 patients remained in CR and 5 patients underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in CR, which could not be considered as events but censors. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) was 60.2%±9.6% for arm A and 88.0%±6.5% for arm B ( =0.024). Patients in arm B experienced shorter durations of leukopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia and had a lower risk of infection during consolidation chemotherapy with high-dosage Ara-C. Consequently, the homoharringtonine-based regimen achieved excellent EFS and alleviated hematologic toxicity for children aged younger than 2 years with AML compared with the anthracycline-based regimen.

关键词: homoharringtonine     acute myeloid leukemia     pediatrics    

Concept and requirements of sustainable development in bridge engineering

Yaojun GE, Haifan XIANG

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2011年 第5卷 第4期   页码 432-450 doi: 10.1007/s11709-011-0126-6

摘要: The concept of sustainability is described in this paper using a single sustainable principle, two goals of sustainable development, three dimensions of sustainable engineering, four sustainable requirements and five phases of sustainable construction. Four sustainable requirements and their practice in China are discussed in particular. The safe reliability of bridges is first compared with the events of bridge failure in China and in the rest of the world and followed by structural durability, including the cracking of concrete cable-stayed bridges, deflection of concrete girder bridges and fatigue cracks of orthotropic steel decks. With respect to functional adaptability, lateral wind action on vehicles and its improvement are introduced regarding a sea-crossing bridge located in a typhoon-prone area. The Chinese practice of using two double main span suspension bridges and a twin parallel deck cable-stayed bridge is presented in discussing the final sustainable requirement: capacity extensibility.

关键词: sustainable engineering     safe reliability     structural durability     functional adaptability     capacity extensibility    

Health impacts of air pollution in China

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第4期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-020-1367-1

摘要:

•Impacts of air pollution on various body systems health in China were highlighted.

关键词: Health impacts     Air pollution     China     Advances    

Environmental pollution and DNA methylation: carcinogenesis, clinical significance, and practical applications

null

《医学前沿(英文)》 2015年 第9卷 第3期   页码 261-274 doi: 10.1007/s11684-015-0406-y

摘要:

Environmental pollution is one of the main causes of human cancer. Exposures to environmental carcinogens result in genetic and epigenetic alterations which induce cell transformation. Epigenetic changes caused by environmental pollution play important roles in the development and progression of environmental pollution-related cancers. Studies on DNA methylation are among the earliest and most conducted epigenetic research linked to cancer. In this review, the roles of DNA methylation in carcinogenesis and their significance in clinical medicine were summarized, and the effects of environmental pollutants, particularly air pollutants, on DNA methylation were introduced. Furthermore, prospective applications of DNA methylation to environmental pollution detection and cancer prevention were discussed.

关键词: environmental pollution     DNA methylation     cancer     biomarker     diagnosis     therapy     prevention    

Investigating the impact of air pollution on AMI and COPD hospital admissions in the coastal city of

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第5期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-021-1490-7

摘要:

• The impact of air pollution on AMI/COPD hospital admissions were examined.

关键词: AMI     COPD     Air pollution exposure     GAM    

Experimental study of pollution effect on the behavior of high voltage insulators under alternative current

Hani BENGUESMIA, Nassima M’ZIOU, Ahmed BOUBAKEUR

《能源前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第1期   页码 213-221 doi: 10.1007/s11708-017-0479-1

摘要: In this paper, the impact of the conductivity and the distribution of pollution on the behavior of the high voltage insulator cap and pin 1512L, artificially polluted is described. An experimental model in form of a disc is proposed. This experimental model reproduces the real model which is the 1512L insulator. Besides, a comparative study is presented. For this comparative study, different solutions are adopted to s`imulate the pollution (containing NaCl+ distilled water) that has different conductivities for a discontinuous distribution of the pollution on the insulator under an AC voltage. Furthermore, the influence of the pollution on the flashover voltage and the leakage current is studied. Finally, the behavior of real and experimental model of the insulator is investigated.

关键词: 1512L insulator     circular model     artificial pollution     flashover     leakage current     discontinuous pollution     high voltage    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

High cadmium pollution risk on vegetable amaranth and a selection for pollution-safe cultivars to lower

Yihui ZHOU, Meng XUE, Zhongyi YANG, Yulian GONG, Jiangang YUAN, Chunyan ZHOU, Baifei HUANG

期刊论文

我国城镇污泥安全处置与资源化研究

戴晓虎,侯立安,章林伟,张林,杨东海

期刊论文

Demonstration project of safe and efficient mining operations in extra-thick coal seam

Jinhui WANG

期刊论文

Urban constructed wetlands: Assessing ecosystem services and disservices for safe, resilient, and sustainable

期刊论文

Multiresolution and multimaterial topology optimization of fail-safe structures under B-spline spaces

期刊论文

Optimising the oil phases of aluminium hydrogel-stabilised emulsions for stable, safe and efficient vaccine

期刊论文

Evolutionary Decision-Making and Planning for Autonomous Driving Based on Safe and Rational Exploration

Kang Yuan,Yanjun Huang,Shuo Yang,Zewei Zhou,Yulei Wang,Dongpu Cao,Hong Chen,

期刊论文

建设安全可靠、清洁环保型炼化企业

张树才,张晓华,贾萍,王倩,曹湘洪

期刊论文

高土石坝安全建设重大技术问题

马洪琪, 迟福东

期刊论文

Homoharringtonine is a safe and effective substitute for anthracyclines in children younger than 2 years

Xiaoxiao Chen, Yanjing Tang, Jing Chen, Ru Chen, Longjun Gu, Huiliang Xue, Ci Pan, Jingyan Tang, Shuhong Shen

期刊论文

Concept and requirements of sustainable development in bridge engineering

Yaojun GE, Haifan XIANG

期刊论文

Health impacts of air pollution in China

期刊论文

Environmental pollution and DNA methylation: carcinogenesis, clinical significance, and practical applications

null

期刊论文

Investigating the impact of air pollution on AMI and COPD hospital admissions in the coastal city of

期刊论文

Experimental study of pollution effect on the behavior of high voltage insulators under alternative current

Hani BENGUESMIA, Nassima M’ZIOU, Ahmed BOUBAKEUR

期刊论文