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Breeding for pre-harvest sprouting resistance in bread wheat under rainfed conditions

Muhammad ZEESHAN, Waheed ARSHAD, Muhammad Imran KHAN, Shiraz ALI, Ali NAWAZ, Amina BATOOL, Muhammad TARIQ, Muhammad Imran AKRAM, Muhammad Amjad ALI

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2018年 第5卷 第2期   页码 253-261 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2018218

摘要: Pre-harvest sprouting in wheat is the germination of seeds within the spikes when rains occur after or during grain ripening, which occurs commonly in the barani tract of Pakistan. Therefore, 10 cultivars and five advanced lines of spring bread wheat were evaluated for pre-harvest sprouting resistance. After natural rainfall, seeds were immediately collected from the wet spikes and tested for germinating ability. Three different germination tests were applied to hand-threshed seed: (1) spikes threshed on the day of sampling and germination tested immediately, (2) spikes threshed on the day of sampling and germination tested 1 week later, and (3) spikes threshed 1 week after sampling and germination test immediately after threshing. Seeds and spikes kept for 1 week were place on blotting paper at room temperature. Cultivars BARS-09, 09FJ17, Doukkala-12, NARC-09 and Ouassou-20 exhibited higher sprouting resistance while other genotypes were susceptible to pre-harvest sprouting in each of the three tests. A diallel crossing was conducted with six susceptible and two resistant genotypes to assess the genetic behavior of pre-harvest sprouting resistance. The combining ability (CA) demonstrated a higher proportion of additive genetic effects for sprouting resistance, because of higher variance of general and specific CA for both parameters under study. Doukkala-12 and BARS-09 showed increased pre-harvest sprouting resistance in their F descendants.

关键词: bread wheat     germination index     general combining ability     pre-harvest sprouting     specific combining ability    

Approaches to achieve high grain yield and high resource use efficiency in rice

Jianchang YANG

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2015年 第2卷 第2期   页码 115-123 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2015055

摘要: This article discusses approaches to simultaneously increase grain yield and resource use efficiency in rice. Breeding nitrogen efficient cultivars without sacrificing rice yield potential, improving grain fill in later-flowering inferior spikelets and enhancing harvest index are three important approaches to achieving the dual goal of high grain yield and high resource use efficiency. Deeper root distribution and higher leaf photosynthetic N use efficiency at lower N rates could be used as selection criteria to develop N-efficient cultivars. Enhancing sink activity through increasing sugar-spikelet ratio at the heading time and enhancing the conversion efficiency from sucrose to starch though increasing the ratio of abscisic acid to ethylene in grains during grain fill could effectively improve grain fill in inferior spikelets. Several practices, such as post-anthesis controlled soil drying, an alternate wetting and moderate soil drying regime during the whole growing season, and non-flooded straw mulching cultivation, could substantially increase grain yield and water use efficiency, mainly via enhanced remobilization of stored carbon from vegetative tissues to grains and improved harvest index. Further research is needed to understand synergistic interaction between water and N on crop and soil and the mechanism underlying high resource use efficiency in high-yielding rice.

关键词: rice     nitrogen-efficient cultivar     grain fill     harvest index     nitrogen use efficiency     water use efficiency    

One DOF mechanism for the mechanical harvest of vines in an arbor structure and the validation of the

Osvaldo PENISI,José BOCCA,Horacio AGUILAR,Pedro BOCCA

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2015年 第10卷 第3期   页码 221-232 doi: 10.1007/s11465-015-0347-9

摘要:

In the mechanized harvest of vines, grape berries are detached through the vibration to the structure supporting the clusters. According to the kind of guide selected, the clusters require one or two vibration directions in the structure. For guiding in parral structures, vibration is necessary in two directions or planes: One perpendicular to the other. The guide branches producing the clusters develop in these planes, and the guiding is called H-guiding. Mechanism theory indicates that a mechanism has as many degrees of freedom as its actuators, and an actuator is needed to achieve a certain vibration. Having the smallest number of possible actuators is beneficial in reducing moving parts and achieving more compact and easily controllable mecha-nisms. In this case, a single degree-of-freedom mechanism is proposed. It is capable of generating vibrations on two planes: One perpendicular to the other. This mechanism is the sum of two link mechanisms on perpendicular planes with a common outlet located at the output rod of the mechanism where the actuator is found. As the distance between the soil and the elements containing the clusters is not constant, a system has been designed to measure the accelerations at the bars and the rocker to validate the acceleration values that detach the grape berries in a prototype in a lab experiment, to ensure that the acceleration needed for pulling the grape berries are produced at any contact point of the bar.

关键词: harvest     mechanisms     one DOF     vibration    

Improving water use efficiency in grain production of winter wheat and summer maize in the North China Plain: a review

Xiying ZHANG,Wenli QIN,Juanna XIE

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2016年 第3卷 第1期   页码 25-33 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2016090

摘要: Reducing irrigation water use by improving water use efficiency (WUE) in grain production is critical for the development of sustainable agriculture in the North China Plain (NCP). This article summarizes the research progresses in WUE improvement carried out at the Luancheng station located in the Northern part of NCP for the past three decades. Progresses in four aspects of yield and WUE improvement are presented, including yield and WUE improvement associated with cultivar selection, irrigation management for improving yield and WUE under limited water supply, managing root system for efficient soil water use and reducing soil evaporation by straw mulch. The results showed that annual average increase of 0.014 kg·m for winter wheat and 0.02 kg·m in WUE were observed for the past three decades, and this increase was largely associated with the improvement in harvest index related to cultivar renewal and an increase in chemical fertilizer use and soil fertility. The results also indicated that deficit irrigation for winter wheat could significantly reduce the irrigation water use, whereas the seasonal yield showed a smaller reduction rate and WUE was significantly improved. Straw mulching of summer maize using the straw from winter wheat could reduce seasonal soil evaporation by 30–40 mm. With new cultivars and improved management practices it was possible to further increase grain production without much increase in water use. Future strategies to further improve WUE are also discussed.

关键词: harvest index     cultivar selection     deficit irrigation     root water uptake     straw mulching    

Effects of irrigation and nitrogen management on hybrid maize seed production in north-west China

Hui RAN,Shaozhong KANG,Fusheng LI,Ling TONG,Taisheng DU

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2016年 第3卷 第1期   页码 55-64 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2016091

摘要: Scientific irrigation and nitrogen management is important for agricultural production in arid areas. To quantify the effect of water and nitrogen management on yield components, biomass partitioning and harvest index ( ) of maize for seed production with plastic film-mulching, field experiments including different irrigation and N treatments were conducted in arid north-west China in 2013 and 2014. The results indicated that kernel number per plant ( ) was significantly affected by irrigation and N treatments. However, 100-kernel weight was relatively stable. Reducing irrigation quantity significantly increased stem partitioning index ( ) and leaf partitioning index ( ), and decreased ear partitioning index ( ) at harvest, but lowering N rate (from 500 to 100 kg N·hm ) did not significantly reduce , , and at harvest. was significantly reduced by reducing irrigation quantity, but not by reducing N rate. Linear relationships were found between , , , at harvest and and evapotranspiration ( ).

关键词: yield components     biomass partitioning     harvest index     irrigation     nitrogen     maize for seed production    

Hip-mounted electromagnetic generator to harvest energy from human motion

Dan DAI,Jing LIU

《能源前沿(英文)》 2014年 第8卷 第2期   页码 173-181 doi: 10.1007/s11708-014-0301-2

摘要: A type of electromagnetic hip-mounted generator (EHG) is proposed to harvest energy from human hip motion to generate electricity. Based on the law of electromagnetic induction, the EHG generator can convert the kinetic power of the thigh swing into electrical energy during walking or running. To demonstrate the feasibility of the present method, a prototype of the EHG has been designed and fabricated. A theoretical analysis has been conducted to interpret the working behavior of this prototype. In addition, the performance of the system has been experimentally tested through a rotary motor and human body motion. When driven by the rotary motor at a rotation speed of 100 r/min, the open-circuit voltage of this prototype is 2.5 V. Further, a maximum open-circuit voltage of approximately 1 V and a maximum output power of 284 μW could be produced respectively when walking with an EHG at a speed of 1.47 m/s. This handy renewable energy technology is promising as a pervasive electricity generation system for a group of wearable or implanted sensors, actuators and mobile electronics.

关键词: human power harvesting     pervasive energy     electricity generation     wearable energy     renewable and sustainable energy     mobile electronics    

Influence of harvest date on seed yield and quality in forage kochia

Cody F. CREECH, Blair L. WALDRON, Corey V. RAMSOM, Dale R. ZOBELL, Joseph Earl CREECH

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2018年 第5卷 第1期   页码 71-79 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2017196

摘要: Forage kochia ( ) is used for rangeland reclamation and livestock and wildlife forage, but limited research has been conducted on its seed production. Therefore, this research evaluated the effect of harvest date on seed weight, germination, and seed yield of forage kochia subspecies and . Seed was harvested from individual plants for 3 years during October, November, and December. October harvest had the lightest 100-seed weights, with the November harvest slightly heavier than December, for most accessions. Cultivar Snowstorm and breeding line Sahsel, both subsp. , had the greatest 100-seed weights in November, 155 and 143 mg, respectively, whereas, cv. Immigrant (subsp. ), the standard for forage kochia, ranked among the least for 100-seed weight. For most accessions, germination was lowest from the October harvest (11%–43%), with greater germination with November and December harvested seeds (43%–64%). Viable seed yields were greatest in November with the exception of two accessions, which peaked in October, indicating earlier maturity. Results indicate that forage kochia usually reaches optimum seed maturity by early November, after plants are exposed to freezing temperatures; however, earlier maturing accessions exist in both subspecies and .

关键词: forage     rangeland     seed germination     seed quality    

Research on port ecological suitability evaluation index system and evaluation model

Yaofeng XIE,Xia LV,Ru LIU,Liuyan MAO,Xiaoxi LIU

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2015年 第9卷 第1期   页码 65-70 doi: 10.1007/s11709-014-0258-6

摘要: Along with the rapid development of port building, the negative impacts of port’s construction and operation on the coastline ecosystem are also increasingly strong. Therefore, it’s urgent to establish a scientific and complete system of port ecological suitability evaluation. This paper pointed out the characteristics of port ecological effects and the principles of selecting evaluation index, and used the “pressure-state-response (PSR)” model to analysis the various pressures on the environment caused by port construction and operation, and the system’s response. On this basis, we constructed the port ecological suitability evaluation index. This model used the combination of qualitative and quantitative analytic hierarchy process, to meet the multi-level, multi-objective characteristics of evaluation index system. The evaluation index system and evaluation model can be used to analysis the ecological suitability of port projects comprehensively and have some guiding significance to the port ecological suitability evaluation.

关键词: port     ecological suitability     press-state-response (PSR) model     evaluation index system    

A total torque index for dynamic performance evaluation of a radial symmetric six-legged robot

Kejia LI, Xilun DING, Marco CECCARELL

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2012年 第7卷 第2期   页码 219-230 doi: 10.1007/s11465-012-0320-9

摘要:

This article focuses on the dynamic index and performance of a radial symmetric six-legged robot. At first the structure of the robot is described in brief and its inverse kinematics is presented. Then the dynamic model is formulated as based on the Lagrange equations. A novel index of total torque is proposed by considering the posture of the supporting legs. The new index can be used to optimize the leg’s structure and operation for consuming minimum power and avoiding unstable postures of the robot. A characterization of the proposed six-legged robot is obtained by a parametric analysis of robot performance through simulation using the presented dynamic model. Main influences are outlined as well as the usefulness of the proposed performance index.

关键词: six-legged robots     dynamic modeling     performance index    

determination of tobramycin by reversed-phase ion-pair high performance liquid chromatography with a refractive index

Liang ZHU, Jingkang WANG

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2013年 第7卷 第3期   页码 322-328 doi: 10.1007/s11705-013-1348-z

摘要: A simple and direct method without a derivation step for routine analysis of tobramycin has been developed. This method used reversed-phase ion-pair high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a refractive index (RI) detector and a C18 column which is stable at pH above 1.00. The presence of 4.50 mg·mL trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in the mobile phase improved the protonation of tobramycin and the formation of ion-pairs, and thus reduced its hydrophility. This unique separation–detection combination showed good linearity with correlation coefficients 0.9996 in the concentration range of 0.25–2.50 mg·mL . The quantitation limit and detection limit were determined to be 0.23 mg·mL and 0.071 mg·mL , respectively. Tobramycin was recovered in 98.00%, 98.84% and 99.64% for tobramycin solutions at concentrations of 2.25 mg·mL , 1.50 mg·mL and 0.75 mg·mL , respectively. The relative standard deviations for six spiked samples ranged from 0.20% to 2.40%, indicating a good reproducibility of this method.

关键词: tobramycin     aminoglycoside     refractive index detector     high-performance liquid chromatography     ion-pairing    

Isolating higher yielding and more stable rice genotypes in stress environments: fine-tuning a selection method using production and resilience score indices

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2023521

摘要:

● Score index methods readily discriminate genotypes adapted to a target environment.

关键词: Aerobic rice     breeding selection     drought resilience     production capacity index     resilience capacity index     stress score index     upland    

SUSTAINABLE NITROGEN MANAGEMENT INDEX: DEFINITION, GLOBAL ASSESSMENT AND POTENTIAL IMPROVEMENTS

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第9卷 第3期   页码 356-365 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2022458

摘要:

● A composite N management index is proposed to measure agriculture sustainability.

关键词: global assessment     indicator     nitrogen management     sustainable agriculture     sustainable development goals    

A novel power system reconfiguration for a distribution system with minimum load balancing index using

K. Sathish KUMAR, T. JAYABARATHI

《能源前沿(英文)》 2012年 第6卷 第3期   页码 260-265 doi: 10.1007/s11708-012-0196-8

摘要: In this paper, the objective of minimum load balancing index (LBI) for the 16-bus distribution system is achieved using bacterial foraging optimization algorithm (BFOA). The feeder reconfiguration problem is formulated as a non-linear optimization problem and the optimal solution is obtained using BFOA. With the proposed reconfiguration method, the radial structure of the distribution system is retained and the burden on the optimization technique is reduced. Test results are presented for the 16-bus sample network, the proposed reconfiguration method has effectively decreased the LBI, and the BFOA technique is efficient in searching for the optimal solution.

关键词: bacterial foraging optimization algorithm (BFOA)     distribution system     network reconfiguration     load balancing index (LBI)     radial network    

The Building of Papermaking Enterprise’s Recycling Economy Evaluation Index System Based on Value Flow

Zhi-fang Zhou,Jing Ou,Sha-sha Wang,Xiao-hong Chen

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2016年 第3卷 第1期   页码 9-17 doi: 10.15302/J-FEM-2016009

摘要: At present, the research on circular economy has made a lot of substantive results both at home and abroad. But for the papermaking enterprise, which is the representative of the light industry, few studies have analyzed the evaluation index system of circular economy. Since the current material flow analyses have limitations that the researchers cannot calculate materials with different units. The authors take advantage of the intrinsic correlation between the basic principle of value flow analysis and circular economy, and then analyze the dynamic changes of material flow and value flow through enterprises internal production process. Considering the resource output, the authors set up the layered structure of the evaluation index system, and then preliminarily determine the index form. Next, the authors use the frequency statistics analysis method to adjust indicators, forming a preliminary index system. After that, the principal component analysis and independent analysis are applied for screening. Finally, the authors build a circular economy evaluation index system for papermaking enterprise to provide scientific guidance for the process of circular economy.

关键词: circular economy     the papermaking enterprise     material flow analysis     value flow analysis     evaluation index system    

Can the Shanghai LNG Price Index indicate Chinese market?

Yeli ZENG, Cong DONG, Mikael HÖÖK, Jinhua SUN, Danyang SHI

《能源前沿(英文)》 2020年 第14卷 第4期   页码 726-739 doi: 10.1007/s11708-020-0701-4

摘要: China became the world’s second largest liquefied natural gas (LNG) importer in 2018 but has faced extremely high import costs due to a lack of bargaining power. Assessments of the Shanghai LNG Price Index, first released in 2015, are vital for improving the understanding of these cost dynamics. This paper, using the LNG price index data from the Shanghai Petroleum and Gas Exchange (SHPGX) coupled with domestic and international LNG prices from July 1, 2015 to December 31, 2018, estimates several econometric models to evaluate the long-term and short-term equilibriums of the Shanghai LNG Price Index, the responses to market information shocks and the leading or lagging relationships with LNG and alternative energy prices from other agencies. The results show that the LNG price index of the SHPGX has already exhibited a long-term equilibrium and short-term adjustment mechanisms to reflect the average price level and market movements, but the market information transparency and price discovery efficiency of the index are still inadequate. China’s LNG market is still relatively independent of other natural gas markets, and marketization reforms are under way in China. The influence of the SHPGX LNG price index on the trading decisions of market participants is expected to improve with further development of China’s LNG reforms, the formation of a natural gas entry-exit system, and the increasing liquidity of the hub.

关键词: liquefied natural gas     price index     Shanghai Petroleum and Gas Exchange     price discovery     market reforms    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Breeding for pre-harvest sprouting resistance in bread wheat under rainfed conditions

Muhammad ZEESHAN, Waheed ARSHAD, Muhammad Imran KHAN, Shiraz ALI, Ali NAWAZ, Amina BATOOL, Muhammad TARIQ, Muhammad Imran AKRAM, Muhammad Amjad ALI

期刊论文

Approaches to achieve high grain yield and high resource use efficiency in rice

Jianchang YANG

期刊论文

One DOF mechanism for the mechanical harvest of vines in an arbor structure and the validation of the

Osvaldo PENISI,José BOCCA,Horacio AGUILAR,Pedro BOCCA

期刊论文

Improving water use efficiency in grain production of winter wheat and summer maize in the North China Plain: a review

Xiying ZHANG,Wenli QIN,Juanna XIE

期刊论文

Effects of irrigation and nitrogen management on hybrid maize seed production in north-west China

Hui RAN,Shaozhong KANG,Fusheng LI,Ling TONG,Taisheng DU

期刊论文

Hip-mounted electromagnetic generator to harvest energy from human motion

Dan DAI,Jing LIU

期刊论文

Influence of harvest date on seed yield and quality in forage kochia

Cody F. CREECH, Blair L. WALDRON, Corey V. RAMSOM, Dale R. ZOBELL, Joseph Earl CREECH

期刊论文

Research on port ecological suitability evaluation index system and evaluation model

Yaofeng XIE,Xia LV,Ru LIU,Liuyan MAO,Xiaoxi LIU

期刊论文

A total torque index for dynamic performance evaluation of a radial symmetric six-legged robot

Kejia LI, Xilun DING, Marco CECCARELL

期刊论文

determination of tobramycin by reversed-phase ion-pair high performance liquid chromatography with a refractive index

Liang ZHU, Jingkang WANG

期刊论文

Isolating higher yielding and more stable rice genotypes in stress environments: fine-tuning a selection method using production and resilience score indices

期刊论文

SUSTAINABLE NITROGEN MANAGEMENT INDEX: DEFINITION, GLOBAL ASSESSMENT AND POTENTIAL IMPROVEMENTS

期刊论文

A novel power system reconfiguration for a distribution system with minimum load balancing index using

K. Sathish KUMAR, T. JAYABARATHI

期刊论文

The Building of Papermaking Enterprise’s Recycling Economy Evaluation Index System Based on Value Flow

Zhi-fang Zhou,Jing Ou,Sha-sha Wang,Xiao-hong Chen

期刊论文

Can the Shanghai LNG Price Index indicate Chinese market?

Yeli ZENG, Cong DONG, Mikael HÖÖK, Jinhua SUN, Danyang SHI

期刊论文