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Kinetics of microwave-enhanced oxidation of phenol by hydrogen peroxide

Deming ZHAO, Jie CHENG, Michael R. HOFFMANN

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2011年 第5卷 第1期   页码 57-64 doi: 10.1007/s11783-010-0251-9

摘要: Aqueous solutions of phenol were oxidized by hydrogen peroxide assisted by microwave (MW) irradiation. A simple kinetic model for the overall degradation of phenol in the presence of excess H O is proposed in which the degradation rate of phenol is expressed as a linear function of the concentrations of phenol and H O . A detailed parametric study showed that the degradation rate of phenol increased with increasing [H O ] until saturation was observed. Phenol degradation followed apparent zero-order kinetics under MW radiation or H O oxidation. However, after 90 min of irradiation, the observed kinetics shifted to pseudo first order. The overall reaction rates were significantly enhanced in the combined MW/H O system, mainly because microwave could accelerate H O to generate hydroxyl radical ( OH) and other reactive oxygen intermediates. The observed synergetic effects of the MW/H O process resulted in an increased in the net reaction rate by a factor of 5.75. When hydrogen peroxide is present in a large stoichiometric excess, the time required to achieve complete mineralization is reduced significantly.

关键词: microwave (MW) irradiation     hydrogen peroxide     phenol     synergetic effects     kinetic model    

Experimental and theoretical study of microwave enhanced catalytic hydrodesulfurization of thiophene

Hui Shang, Pengfei Ye, Yude Yue, Tianye Wang, Wenhui Zhang, Sainab Omar, Jiawei Wang

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第13卷 第4期   页码 744-758 doi: 10.1007/s11705-019-1839-7

摘要: Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of thiophene, as a gasoline model oil, over an industrial Ni-Mo/Al O catalyst was investigated in a continuous system under microwave irradiation. The HDS efficiency was much higher (5%‒14%) under microwave irradiation than conventional heating. It was proved that the reaction was enhanced by both microwave thermal and non-thermal effects. Microwave selective heating caused hot spots inside the catalyst, thus improved the reaction rate. From the analysis of the non-thermal effect, the molecular collisions were significantly increased under microwave irradiation. However, instead of being reduced, the apparent activation energy increased. This may be due to the microwave treatment hindering the adsorption though upright S-bind (η ) and enhancing the parallel adsorption (η ), both adsorptions were considered to favor to the direct desulfurization route and the hydrogenation route respectively. Therefore, the HDS process was considered to proceed along the hydrogenation route under microwave irradiation.

关键词: thiophene     microwave irradiation     hydrodesulfurization     non-thermal microwave effect    

微波辐射下离子液体[RMIm]PF6(R=P, B, C6)的合成及其电导率研究

何永福

《中国工程科学》 2008年 第10卷 第9期   页码 92-95

摘要:

在微波辐射下,1-甲基咪唑分别与有机卤盐(1-溴丙烷、1-溴丁烷、1-溴己烷)在80 ℃回流加热10 min,可制得咪唑类离子液体的中间体溴代1-丁基-3-甲基咪唑([BMIm]Br)、溴代1-丙基-3-甲基咪唑([PMIm]Br)、溴代1-己基-3-甲基咪唑([C6MIm]Br),进一步与HPF6在室温搅拌反应4 h,制得憎水性的咪唑类离子液体[BMIm]PF6,[PMIm]PF6和[C6MIm]PF6。对这3种离子液体及其在不同有机溶剂如丙酮、甲醇、乙酸乙酯中的电导率进行测定,发现离子液体的电导率受咪

关键词: 离子液体     微波辐射     电导率     [BMIm]PF6     [PMIm]PF6     [C6MIm]PF6    

Preparation of Cu/ZnO/Al

Hui FAN, Huayan ZHENG, Zhong LI

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2010年 第4卷 第4期   页码 445-451 doi: 10.1007/s11705-010-0521-x

摘要: Cu/ZnO/Al O catalysts with Cu/Zn/Al ratios of 6/3/1 were precipitated and aged by conventional and microwave heating methods and tested in the slurry phase reactor for methanol synthesis. The effect of technological condition of precipitation and aging process under microwave irradiation on the catalytic performance was investigated to optimize the preparing condition of Cu/ZnO/Al O catalyst. The results showed that the microwave irradiation during precipitation process could improve the activity of the catalyst, but had little effect on the stability. While the microwave irradiation during aging process has a great benefit to both the activity and stability of the catalyst, the catalyst aged at 80°C for 1 h under microwave irradiation possessed higher methanol space time yield (STY) and more stable catalytic activity. The activity and stability of the catalyst was further enhanced when microwave irradiation was used in both precipitation and aging processes; the optimized condition for the catalyst precursor preparation was precipitation at 60°C and aging at 80°C under microwave irradiation.

关键词: microwave irradiation     precipitation temperature     aging temperature     methanol synthesis     Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst    

A study on the catalytic performance of Pd/γ-Al

Ruizhi CHU, Xianyong WEI, Zhimin ZONG, Wenjia ZHAO

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2010年 第4卷 第4期   页码 452-456 doi: 10.1007/s11705-010-0522-9

摘要: A series of Pd/γ-Al O hybrid catalysts were prepared by impregnation and subsequent calcination under microwave irradiation. The catalysts were used for direct synthesis of dimethylether (DME) from syngas. The results show that calcination under microwave irradiation improved both the activity and selectivity of the catalysts for DME synthesis. The optimum power of the microwave was determined to be 420 W. Under such optimum conditions, CO conversion, DME selectivity and time space yield of DME were 60.1%, 67.0%, and 21.5 mmol·mL ·h , respectively. Based on various characterizations such as nitrogen physisorption, X-ray diffraction, CO-temperature-programmed desorption, and Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis, the promotional effect of the microwave irradiation on the catalytic property was mainly attributed to both the higher dispersion of Pd and the significant increase in the adsorption on the CO-bridge of Pd. Microwave irradiation with very high power led to the increase in CO-bridge adsorption and thereby decreased the catalytic activity, whereas the coverage by metallic Pd of the active sites on acidic γ-Al O significantly occurred under microwave irradiation with very low power, resulting in a decrease in the selectivity to DME.

关键词: Pd/γ-Al2O3     direct synthesis     dimethyl ether     calcination under microwave irradiation    

Decomposition of aqueous chlorinated contaminants by UV irradiation with H

Eunsung KAN,Chang-Il KOH,Kyunghyuk LEE,Joonwun KANG

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2015年 第9卷 第3期   页码 429-435 doi: 10.1007/s11783-014-0677-6

摘要: In the present study, the decomposition rates of carbon tetrachloride (CCl ) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) in water by the ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation alone and H O /UV were experimentally investigated. The detailed experimental studies have been conducted for examining treatment capacities of the two different ultraviolet light sources (low and medium pressure Hg arc) in H O /UV processes. The low or medium UV lamp alone resulted in a 60%–90% decomposition of 2,4-DCP while a slight addition of H O resulted in a drastic enhancement of the 2,4-DCP decomposition rate. The decomposition rate of 2,4-DCP with the medium pressure UV lamp alone was about 3–6 times greater than the low pressure UV lamp alone. In the direct photolysis of aqueous CCl , the medium pressure UV lamp had advantage over the low pressure UV lamp because the molar extinction coefficient of CCl at shorter wavelength (210–220 nm) is about 20 to 50 times higher than that at 254 nm. However, adding H O to the medium pressure UV lamp system rendered a negative oxidation rate because H O acted as a UV absorber being competitive with CCl due to negligible reaction between CCl and OH radicals. The results from the present study indicated significant influence of the photochemical properties of the target contaminants on the photochemical treatment characteristics for designing cost-effective UV-based degradation of toxic contaminants.

关键词: H2O2/ultraviolet (UV) light     advanced oxidation     UV light irradiation     chlorinated contaminants     photochemical treatment characteristics    

Effect of ultraviolet irradiation and chlorination on ampicillin-resistant

Yuchen PANG,Jingjing HUANG,Jinying XI,Hongying HU,Yun ZHU

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2016年 第10卷 第3期   页码 522-530 doi: 10.1007/s11783-015-0779-9

摘要: Antibiotic resistance is a serious public health risk that may spread via potable and reclaimed water. Effective disinfection is important for inactivation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and disruption of antibiotic resistance genes. Ampicillin is a widely prescribed antibiotic but its effectiveness is increasingly undermined by resistance. In this study, changes in ampicillin resistance for ( ) CGMCC 1.1595 were analyzed after exposure to different doses of ultraviolet (UV) or chlorine, and damage incurred by the plasmid encoding ampicillin resistance gene was assessed. We reported a greater stability in ampicillin-resistant CGMCC 1.1595 after UV irradiation or chlorination when compared with previously published data for other strains. UV irradiation and chlorination led to a shift in the mortality frequency distributions of ampicillin-resistant when subsequently exposed to ampicillin. The ampicillin hemi-inhibitory concentration (IC ) without disinfection was 3800 mg·L , and an increment was observed after UV irradiation or chlorination. The IC of ampicillin-resistant was 1.5-fold higher at a UV dose of 40 mJ·cm , and was 1.4-fold higher when exposed to 2.0 mg·L chlorine. These results indicate that UV irradiation and chlorination can potentially increase the risk of selection for strains with high ampicillin resistance. There was no evident damage to after 1–10 mg Cl ·L chlorination, while a UV dose of 80 mJ·cm yielded a damage ratio for of approximately 1.2-log. Therefore, high UV doses are required for effective disruption of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria.

关键词: antibiotic resistance     Escherichia coli     ampicillin resistance gene     ultraviolet irradiation     chlorination    

Use of gamma-irradiation pretreatment for enhancement of anaerobic digestibility of sewage sludge

YUAN Shoujun, ZHENG Zheng, YU Xin, ZHAO Yongfu, MU Yanyan

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2008年 第2卷 第2期   页码 247-250 doi: 10.1007/s11783-008-0041-9

摘要: The effects of ?-irradiation pretreatment on anaerobic digestibility of sewage sludge was investigated in this paper. Parameters like solid components, soluble components, and biogas production of anaerobic digestion experiment for sewage sludge were measured. The values of these parameters were compared before and after ?-irradiation pretreatment. Total solid (TS), volatile solid (VS), suspended solid (SS), volatile suspended solid (VSS), and average floc size of samples decreased after ?-irradiation treatment. Besides, floc size distribution of sewage sludge shifted from 80–100 ?m to 0–40 ?m after ?-irradiation treatment at the doses from 0 to 30 kGy, which indicated the disintegration of sewage sludge. Moreover, microbe cells of sewage sludge were ruptured by ?-irradiation treatment, which resulted in the release of cytoplasm and increase of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD). Both sludge disintegration and microbe cells rupture enhanced the subsequent anaerobic digestion process, which was demonstrated by the increase of accumulated biogas production. Compared with digesters fed with none irradiated sludge, the accumulated biogas production increased 44, 98, and 178 mL for digesters fed sludge irradiated at 2.48, 6.51, and 11.24 kGy, respectively. The results indicated that ?-irradiation pretreatment could effectively enhance anaerobic digestibility of sewage sludge, and correspondingly, could accelerate hydrolysis process, shorten sludge retention time of sludge anaerobic digestion process.

关键词: anaerobic digestibility     soluble chemical     cytoplasm     digestion process     soluble    

Effects of irradiation on chromium’s behavior in ferritic/martensitic FeCr alloy

Xinfu HE, Wen YANG, Zhehao QU, Sheng FAN

《能源前沿(英文)》 2009年 第3卷 第2期   页码 181-183 doi: 10.1007/s11708-009-0025-x

摘要: The effects of irradiation on chromium performance under different temperatures in Fe-20at%Cr were modeled by modified Marlowe code. Chromium precipitation was observed in FeCr alloy after irradiation; interstitial Chromium atoms are the preferred formation of mixed Fe-Cr dumbbells in the direction of<110>and<111>; interstitial chromium atoms congregated on {111} and {110} plane. The results are compared with experiment observations and are useful to understanding the irradiation performances of FeCr alloy.

关键词: irradiation     Fe-20at%Cr alloy     chromium segregation    

Decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid by microwave-activated persulfate: Effects of temperature, pH

Yuchi LEE, Shanglien LO, Jeff KUO, Chinghong HSIEH

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2012年 第6卷 第1期   页码 17-25 doi: 10.1007/s11783-011-0371-x

摘要: Microwave-hydrothermal treatment of persistent and bioaccumulative perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in water with persulfate ( ) has been found effective. However, applications of this process to effectively remediate PFOA pollution require a better understanding on free-radical scavenging reactions that also take place. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of pH (pH= 2.5, 6.6, 8.8, and 10.5), chloride concentrations (0.01–0.15 mol·L ), and temperature (60°C, 90°C, and 130°C) on persulfate oxidation of PFOA under microwave irradiation. Maximum PFOA degradation occurred at pH 2.5, while little or no degradation at pH 10.5. Lowering system pH resulted in an increase in PFOA degradation rate. Both high pH and chloride concentrations would result in more scavenging of sulfate free radicals and slow down PFOA degradation. When chloride concentrations were less than 0.04 mol·L at 90°C and 0.06 mol·L at 60°C, presence of chloride ions had insignificant impacts on PFOA degradation. However, beyond these concentration levels, PFOA degradation rates reduced significantly with an increase in chloride concentrations, especially under the higher temperature.

关键词: microwave     perfluorooctanoic acid     pH     persulfate     chloride ions     perfluorocarboxylic acids    

Removal of virus aerosols by the combination of filtration and UV-C irradiation

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第3期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-023-1627-y

摘要:

● The removal of virus aerosols by filtration and UV-C irradiation was proposed.

关键词: Filtration system     UV-C irradiation     Virus aerosol     Public health     COVID-19    

Study on the microwave-assisted extraction of polyphenols from tea

Liyun WANG, Peiyong QIN, Yan HU,

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2010年 第4卷 第3期   页码 307-313 doi: 10.1007/s11705-009-0282-6

摘要: This study demonstrated a promising method for quickly extracting tea polyphenol (TP) by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technology. Some influential parameters, including MAE temperature, microwave power, concentration of extraction solvent, MAE time and the solid/liquid ratio, were investigated. The optimum condition of MAE was obtained by dual extraction with 60% ethanol (v/v) and the solid/liquid ratio 1:12 g/mL at 80°C for 10 minutes under the microwave power 600 W. The yield of TP was 96.5% under the described condition. Compared with traditional methods, including hot reflux extraction (HRE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), the extraction time was saved 8 times than that of HRE, and the yield was increased by 17.5%. The extraction time at comparable levels of production was saved 2 times, and the energy consumption was one fourth that of UAE. The extraction time was saved 5 times than that of SFE, and the yield of TP was increased by 40%. Moreover, compared with MAE of TP studied by others, it decreased the solid/liquid ratio from 1 ∶ 20 to 1 ∶ 12 g/mL without 90-min pre-leaching time, and the yield of TP was increased by 6%–40%.

关键词: energy consumption     microwave-assisted extraction     optimum condition     pre-leaching     concentration    

Characterisation of a microwave induced plasma torch for glass surface modification

Adam BENNETT, Nan YU, Fengzhou FANG, Marco CASTELLI, Guoda CHEN, Alessio BALLERI, Takuya URAYAMA

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第16卷 第1期   页码 122-132 doi: 10.1007/s11465-020-0603-5

摘要: Microwave induced plasma torches find wide applications in material and chemical analysis. Investigation of a coaxial electrode microwave induced plasma (CE–MIP) torch is conducted in this study, making it available for glass surface modification and polishing. A dedicated nozzle is designed to inject secondary gases into the main plasma jet. This study details the adaptation of a characterisation process for CE–MIP technology. Microwave spectrum analysis is used to create a polar plot of the microwave energy being emitted from the coaxial electrode, where the microwave energy couples with the gas to generate the plasma jet. Optical emission spectroscopy analysis is also employed to create spatial maps of the photonic intensity distribution within the plasma jet when different additional gases are injected into it. The CE–MIP torch is experimentally tested for surface energy modification on glass where it creates a super-hydrophilic surface.

关键词: microwave induced plasma     spectrum analysis     surface modification    

Soybean drying characteristics in microwave rotary dryer with forced convection

Ruifang WANG, Zhanyong LI, Yanhua LI, Jingsheng YE

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2009年 第3卷 第3期   页码 289-292 doi: 10.1007/s11705-009-0022-y

摘要: A new hybrid drying technique by combining microwave and forced convection drying within a rotary drum, i.e., microwave rotary drying, was developed with the purpose to improve the uniformity of microwave drying. In a laboratory microwave rotary dryer, rewetted soybean was utilized as experimental material to study the effects of drum rotating speed, ventilation flow rate, and specific microwave power on the drying kinetics and cracking ratio of soybean. It was found that, with rotation, the cracking ratio can be lowered but without distinct improvement in the drying rate. Increasing ventilation flow rate and specific microwave power can improve the drying rate, but the cracking ratio also increases as a negative result. The cracking ratio lower than 10% can be attained for ventilation flow rate lower than 2.0 m ·h or specific microwave energy lower than 0.4 kW·kg in the present experiments.

关键词: cracking     microwave     rotary drying     soybean    

Degradation of trace nitrobenzene in water by microwave-enhanced H

Honghu ZENG, Lanjing LU, Meina LIANG, Jie LIU, Yanghong LI

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2012年 第6卷 第4期   页码 477-483 doi: 10.1007/s11783-012-0395-x

摘要: To evaluate possible use of microwave-enhanced H O -based (MW/H O ) process to degrade trace nitrobenzene (NB) in water, a series of batch experiments were conducted. The results showed that 2450MHz microwave irradiation significantly enhanced oxidative decomposition of nitrobenzene (NB) in a H O system. About 90% NB was degraded by the MW/ H O process in 30 min. Moreover, the MW/ H O process could enhanced the oxidative degradation of NB even at relatively low temperature (50°C). When the initial concentration of NB was 300μg/L, the optimum ratio of H O to NB and MW power were 70 and 300 W respectively. The presence of humic acid significantly increased H O dosage. The ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV ) indicated degradation of NB was stepwise and some intermediates were produced. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis showed that main intermediates were nitrophenolic and carbonyl compounds.

关键词: microwave     hydrogen peroxide     nitrobenzene     humic acid    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Kinetics of microwave-enhanced oxidation of phenol by hydrogen peroxide

Deming ZHAO, Jie CHENG, Michael R. HOFFMANN

期刊论文

Experimental and theoretical study of microwave enhanced catalytic hydrodesulfurization of thiophene

Hui Shang, Pengfei Ye, Yude Yue, Tianye Wang, Wenhui Zhang, Sainab Omar, Jiawei Wang

期刊论文

微波辐射下离子液体[RMIm]PF6(R=P, B, C6)的合成及其电导率研究

何永福

期刊论文

Preparation of Cu/ZnO/Al

Hui FAN, Huayan ZHENG, Zhong LI

期刊论文

A study on the catalytic performance of Pd/γ-Al

Ruizhi CHU, Xianyong WEI, Zhimin ZONG, Wenjia ZHAO

期刊论文

Decomposition of aqueous chlorinated contaminants by UV irradiation with H

Eunsung KAN,Chang-Il KOH,Kyunghyuk LEE,Joonwun KANG

期刊论文

Effect of ultraviolet irradiation and chlorination on ampicillin-resistant

Yuchen PANG,Jingjing HUANG,Jinying XI,Hongying HU,Yun ZHU

期刊论文

Use of gamma-irradiation pretreatment for enhancement of anaerobic digestibility of sewage sludge

YUAN Shoujun, ZHENG Zheng, YU Xin, ZHAO Yongfu, MU Yanyan

期刊论文

Effects of irradiation on chromium’s behavior in ferritic/martensitic FeCr alloy

Xinfu HE, Wen YANG, Zhehao QU, Sheng FAN

期刊论文

Decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid by microwave-activated persulfate: Effects of temperature, pH

Yuchi LEE, Shanglien LO, Jeff KUO, Chinghong HSIEH

期刊论文

Removal of virus aerosols by the combination of filtration and UV-C irradiation

期刊论文

Study on the microwave-assisted extraction of polyphenols from tea

Liyun WANG, Peiyong QIN, Yan HU,

期刊论文

Characterisation of a microwave induced plasma torch for glass surface modification

Adam BENNETT, Nan YU, Fengzhou FANG, Marco CASTELLI, Guoda CHEN, Alessio BALLERI, Takuya URAYAMA

期刊论文

Soybean drying characteristics in microwave rotary dryer with forced convection

Ruifang WANG, Zhanyong LI, Yanhua LI, Jingsheng YE

期刊论文

Degradation of trace nitrobenzene in water by microwave-enhanced H

Honghu ZENG, Lanjing LU, Meina LIANG, Jie LIU, Yanghong LI

期刊论文