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Plasma transthyretin is a nutritional biomarker in human morbidities

《医学前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第4期   页码 540-550 doi: 10.1007/s11684-022-0940-3

摘要: Transthyretin (TTR) is a small liver-secreted plasma protein that shows close correlations with changes in lean body mass (LBM) during the entire human lifespan and agglomerates the bulk of nitrogen (N)-containing substrates, hence constituting the cornerstone of body building. Amino acids (AAs) dietary restriction causes inhibition of TTR production and impairs the accretion of LBM reserves. Inflammatory disorders result in cytokine-induced abrogation of TTR synthesis and urinary leakage of nitrogenous catabolites. Taken together, the data indicate that malnutrition and inflammation may similarly suppress the production of TTR through distinct and unrelated pathophysiological mechanisms while operating in concert to downsize LBM stores. The hepatic synthesis of TTR integrates both machineries, acting as a marker of reduced LBM resources still available for defense and repair processes. TTR operates as a universal surrogate analyte that allows for the grading of residual LBM capacity to reflect disease burden. Measurement of TTR is a simple, rapid, and inexpensive micro-method that may be reproduced on a daily basis, hence ideally suited for the follow-up of the most intricated clinical situations and as a reliable predictor of any morbidity outcome.

关键词: lean body mass     nutritional status     transthyretin     malnutrition     inflammation     amyloidosis    

USING NUTRITIONAL STRATEGIES TO MITIGATE RUMINAL METHANE EMISSIONS FROM RUMINANTS

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第10卷 第3期   页码 390-402 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2023504

摘要:

● Microbial fermentation in the rumen is a main source of methane emissions.

关键词: nutritional strategy     mitigation     microbe     methane     ruminant    

Transgenic technologies in cassava for nutritional improvement and viral disease resistance: a key strategy

Maliwan NACONSIE,Peng ZHANG

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2016年 第3卷 第4期   页码 285-294 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2016119

摘要: As a major staple food source in Africa and other tropical developing countries, cassava ( ) provides basic sustenance for many subsistence farmers. However, cassava roots mainly accumulate starch with limited contribution of other nutrients such as proteins and vitamins. Also, two viral diseases, cassava mosaic disease (CMD) and cassava brown streak disease (CBSD), cause great losses in cassava production in sub-Saharan Africa and the Indian sub-continent. Genetic engineering provides promising approaches to improve nutritional value and increase resistance to viral diseases in cassava. This report presents several successful case studies on engineering protein content by overexpression of nutritious storage proteins and improving cassava resistance to viral diseases by RNA interference. Perspectives on the sustainable acquisition of new knowledge and development of biotechnology to solve these bottlenecks are discussed.

关键词: Manihot esculenta     protein enhancement     RNA interference     transgenesis     virus resistance    

Autophagy and the nutritional signaling pathway

Long HE,Shabnam ESLAMFAM,Xi MA,Defa LI

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2016年 第3卷 第3期   页码 222-230 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2016106

摘要: During their growth and development, animals adapt to tremendous changes in order to survive. These include responses to both environmental and physiological changes and autophagy is one of most important adaptive and regulatory mechanisms. Autophagy is defined as an autolytic process to clear damaged cellular organelles and recycle the nutrients via lysosomic degradation. The process of autophagy responds to special conditions such as nutrient withdrawal. Once autophagy is induced, phagophores form and then elongate and curve to form autophagosomes. Autophagosomes then engulf cargo, fuse with endosomes, and finally fuse with lysosomes for maturation. During the initiation process, the ATG1/ULK1 (unc-51-like kinase 1) and VPS34 (which encodes a class III phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 3-kinase) complexes are critical in recruitment and assembly of other complexes required for autophagy. The process of autophagy is regulated by autophagy related genes (ATGs). Amino acid and energy starvation mediate autophagy by activating mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is the energy status sensor, the core nutrient signaling component and the metabolic kinase of cells. This review mainly focuses on the mechanism of autophagy regulated by nutrient signaling especially for the two important complexes, ULK1 and VPS34.

关键词: Autophagy     ULK1 complex     VPS34 complex     AMPK     mTOR     nutrient signaling    

肝移植术后营养支持

费佳,冷希圣,彭吉润

《中国工程科学》 2003年 第5卷 第12期   页码 24-29

摘要:

对肝移植受体营养状况的评估、术前营养状态的测定和纠正、移植肝脏功能的评价、肝移植术后营养支持的原则、营养支持的具体实施以及小儿肝移植的营养支持等问题进行了讨论。

关键词: 肝脏移植     术后     营养支持    

Foxtail millet: nutritional and eating quality, and prospects for genetic improvement

Lu HE,Bin ZHANG,Xingchun WANG,Hongying LI,Yuanhuai HAN

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2015年 第2卷 第2期   页码 124-133 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2015054

摘要: Foxtail millet is a minor yet important crop in some areas of the world, particularly northern China. It has strong adaptability to abiotic stresses, especially drought, and poor soil. It also has high nutritional value. Foxtail millet is rich in essential amino acids, fatty acids and minerals, and is considered to be one of the most digestible and non-allergenic grains available and has significant importance for human health. Given foxtail millet’s ability to adapt to abiotic stresses associated with climate change, it is more important than ever to develop breeding strategies that facilitate the increasing demand for high quality grain that better satisfies consumers. Here we review research on foxtail millet quality evaluation, appearance, cooking and eating quality at the phenotypic level. We review analysis of the main nutrients in foxtail millet, their relationships and the biochemical and genetic factors affecting their accumulation. In addition, we review past progress in breeding this regionally important crop, outline current status of breeding of foxtail millet, and make suggestions to improve grain quality.

关键词: foxtail millet     grain quality     quality evaluation     breeding for quality    

Achievements in burn surgery over the past 50 years in China

WANG Shiliang

《医学前沿(英文)》 2008年 第2卷 第4期   页码 332-336 doi: 10.1007/s11684-008-0063-5

摘要: This paper reflects on the advancements of clinical and scientific research in the field of burn surgery in China. It includes emergency care of massive burns, resuscitation, anti-infection, prevention and cure of internal organ injuries, metabolic and nutritional support, wound repair and rehabilitation, and special types of burns; it also covers pathology, microbiology, immunology, cell biology, molecular biology, and tissue engineering.

关键词: immunology     scientific     nutritional     microbiology     engineering    

Managing soil quality for humanity and the planet

Rattan LAL

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2020年 第7卷 第3期   页码 251-253 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2020329

摘要:

Rather than a human-centric, the basic strategy of achieving Sustainable Development Goals must be focused on restoring and sustaining planetary processes. The urgency of meeting the demands of the humanity must be reconciled with the necessity of enhancing the environment. Increasing and restoring soil organic matter content of the degraded and depleted soils is critical to strengthening planetary processes.

关键词: soil quality     humanity     planet     climate change     soil carbon sequestration     food and nutritional security    

Current status and prospects of reliability systems engineering in China

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第4期   页码 492-502 doi: 10.1007/s42524-021-0172-2

摘要: This study provides a systematic overview of the advent and evolution of reliability systems engineering (RSE) in China, and the latest RSE development, that is, model-based RSE (MBRSE), is emphatically introduced. The establishment of the system architecture and conceptual models of MBRSE is first described. The fundamental theory and methodology of MBRSE are then elaborated, with a V-model as the core of this approach. The development of various MBRSE platforms and the effectiveness of their implementation over the past 30 years are presented. The prospective trends in the development of RSE in China are outlined.

关键词: reliability     effectiveness     model-based systems engineering     reliability systems engineering    

Present status and progress of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer

null

《医学前沿(英文)》 2013年 第7卷 第2期   页码 172-179 doi: 10.1007/s11684-013-0268-0

摘要:

Trimodality based on neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) followed by surgery is gaining popularity as a treatment strategy for locally advanced esophageal cancer. In this review, we summarize the role of nCRT and the recommended nCRT regimens based on clinical trials and meta-analyses. We analyze the relationship of nCRT with pathologic complete response (pCR) and then identify potential predictive markers of response. Compared with surgery alone and neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery, trimodality provides longer survival and has the advantage of local control compared with definitive chemoradiotherapy. The standard regimen is a platinum-based regimen with a radiation dose range of 41.4–50.4βGy by conventional fractionation. Evidence shows that patients with pCR tend to live longer than non-responders, indicating that pCR is a significant prognostic factor for patients with esophageal cancer. Individualized medicine requires predictive markers of individual patients based on their own genes. Currently, no definite marker is proved to be sufficiently sensitive and specific for use in clinical practice, although 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography shows promise in predicting response to nCRT.

关键词: esophageal cancer     neoadjuvant     chemoradiotherapy    

Evaluation of the ecological status with benthic indices in the coastal system: the case of Bohai Bay

Wenqian CAI,Wei MENG,Lusan LIU,Kuixuan LIN

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第8卷 第5期   页码 737-746 doi: 10.1007/s11783-013-0617-x

摘要: Based on biologic and environmental materials collected from coastal areas of Bohai Bay (China) in April, 2008, three biotic indices (AZTI’s Marine Biotic Index (AMBI), Shannon–Wiener Index and -statistic) were applied together to evaluate the ecological status of the sampling area. The results showed a clear spatial gradient from a worse ecological status in the near-shore areas (especially around Haihe and Jiyun River Estuaries) to a better status in the offshore areas. While all the three indices could assist decision makers in visualizing spatial changes of organic pollutants in Bohai Bay, two indices, i.e., AMBI and Shannon-Wiener index, were effective in distinguishing sites from Haihe River Estuary, Jiyun River Estuary and other area. However, -statistic can’t tell the differences between estuaries and other area. It would be explained that organic pollutants and/or other environmental stresses in Bohai Bay were not strong enough to reduce the size of macrozoobenthos, which may cause both of the abundance and biomass curves crossed. To our knowledge, this is the first time that several benthic indices were used to assess the benthic ecological status in Bohai Bay, which gave the similar results. Furthermore, there is indication that the ecological status is related to excess input of wastewater along main rivers and outlets. In a word, AMBI, Shannon–Wiener Index and -statistic could be able to assess the benthic ecological status of Bohai Bay under the organic pollutants pressure.

关键词: AZTI’s Marine Biotic Index     Shannon-Wiener Index     W-statistic     ecological status     coastal system     Bohai Bay (China)    

EGG PRODUCTION IN CHINA: CURRENT STATUS AND OUTLOOK

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第1期   页码 25-34

摘要:

• China is now the largest egg production country worldwide

• Egg production in China is characterized by diversity in several aspects

• China is now capable of breeding new varieties, with more than 50% of the market share

• Policies have been implemented to ensure sustainable development of egg production

• Integrating crop-chicken-vegetable production system is established

 

Eggs are one of the most nutritious and affordable animal products worldwide. From 1985, egg production in China has retained the leading place in the world. A total of 33 Mt of eggs were produced in 2019 representing ˃ 40% of the world total production. Egg production in China is characterized by diversity in several aspects, including layer breeds, products and production systems. New breeds and synthetic lines are developed to improve the genetic potentials of egg production and feed efficiency of layers. In the past, layer farms were run mostly by small households with 100 to 1000 layers per farm. Over the past decades, egg production in China has developed toward standardization and expansion of production systems, and many of these modern intensive farms raise millions of layers. Although the Chinese egg products maintain strong competitiveness over other animal products and imported egg products, the egg industry will grow at a slower pace compared to the past. Chinese consumers are more concerned about the quality and safety of eggs and egg products, as well as the environmental issues related to animal production, which presents challenges for the Chinese egg industry.

HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTATION AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN PESTICIDE DISCOVERY: STATUS AND OUTLOOK

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第9卷 第1期   页码 150-154 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2021419

Catalytic conversion of biomass-derived compounds to various amino acids: status and perspectives

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第7期   页码 817-829 doi: 10.1007/s11705-022-2254-z

摘要: Amino acids are important nitrogen-containing chemicals that have a variety of applications. Currently, fermentation is the widely employed method to produce amino acids; however, the products are mostly limited to natural amino acids in the L-configuration. Catalytic synthesis is an alternative approach for the synthesis of amino acids with different types and configurations, where the use of renewable biomass-based feedstocks is highly attractive. To date, several lignocellulose and triacylglycerol-derived intermediates, typically α-keto acids and α-hydroxyl acids, have been transformed into amino acids via the amination reaction in the presence of additional nitrogen sources (i.e., NH3·H2O). Making full use of inherent nitrogen in biomass (i.e., chitin and protein) to produce amino acids avoids the use of extra nitrogen sources and meets the requirements of green chemistry, which is attracting increasing attention. In this review, we summarize different chemical-catalytic systems for the transformation of biomass to amino acids. An outlook on the challenges and opportunities for more effective production of amino acids from biomass by catalytic methods is provided.

关键词: biomass     amino acids     chitin     nitrogen-containing compounds     lignocellulose    

EGG PRODUCTION IN CHINA: CURRENT STATUS AND OUTLOOK

Ning YANG

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第1期   页码 25-34 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2020363

摘要: Eggs are one of the most nutritious and affordable animal products worldwide. From 1985, egg production in China has retained the leading place in the world. A total of 33 Mt of eggs were produced in 2019 representing ˃ 40% of the world total production. Egg production in China is characterized by diversity in several aspects, including layer breeds, products and production systems. New breeds and synthetic lines are developed to improve the genetic potentials of egg production and feed efficiency of layers. In the past, layer farms were run mostly by small households with 100 to 1000 layers per farm. Over the past decades, egg production in China has developed toward standardization and expansion of production systems, and many of these modern intensive farms raise millions of layers. Although the Chinese egg products maintain strong competitiveness over other animal products and imported egg products, the egg industry will grow at a slower pace compared to the past. Chinese consumers are more concerned about the quality and safety of eggs and egg products, as well as the environmental issues related to animal production, which presents challenges for the Chinese egg industry.

关键词: poultry farms     China     diversity     egg production     trends    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Plasma transthyretin is a nutritional biomarker in human morbidities

期刊论文

USING NUTRITIONAL STRATEGIES TO MITIGATE RUMINAL METHANE EMISSIONS FROM RUMINANTS

期刊论文

Transgenic technologies in cassava for nutritional improvement and viral disease resistance: a key strategy

Maliwan NACONSIE,Peng ZHANG

期刊论文

Autophagy and the nutritional signaling pathway

Long HE,Shabnam ESLAMFAM,Xi MA,Defa LI

期刊论文

肝移植术后营养支持

费佳,冷希圣,彭吉润

期刊论文

Foxtail millet: nutritional and eating quality, and prospects for genetic improvement

Lu HE,Bin ZHANG,Xingchun WANG,Hongying LI,Yuanhuai HAN

期刊论文

Achievements in burn surgery over the past 50 years in China

WANG Shiliang

期刊论文

Managing soil quality for humanity and the planet

Rattan LAL

期刊论文

Current status and prospects of reliability systems engineering in China

期刊论文

Present status and progress of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer

null

期刊论文

Evaluation of the ecological status with benthic indices in the coastal system: the case of Bohai Bay

Wenqian CAI,Wei MENG,Lusan LIU,Kuixuan LIN

期刊论文

EGG PRODUCTION IN CHINA: CURRENT STATUS AND OUTLOOK

期刊论文

HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTATION AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN PESTICIDE DISCOVERY: STATUS AND OUTLOOK

期刊论文

Catalytic conversion of biomass-derived compounds to various amino acids: status and perspectives

期刊论文

EGG PRODUCTION IN CHINA: CURRENT STATUS AND OUTLOOK

Ning YANG

期刊论文