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地下工程的发展提升现代生活质量

Raymond L. Sterling

《工程(英文)》 2017年 第3卷 第6期   页码 780-781 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2017.12.006

Investigation on drilling-grinding of CFRP

Yanming QUAN, Wenwang ZHONG

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2009年 第4卷 第1期   页码 60-63 doi: 10.1007/s11465-009-0008-y

摘要: It is difficult to machine polymer matrix composites reinforced by carbon fibre, and the hole-making process is the most necessary machining process for composite plate products. Conventional drills have a very short life in the drilling of this kind of composites and the quality of the hole is very poor. In this paper, the cemented or plated diamond core tools are tested to make holes in carbon fibre/epoxy composite plates. The effects of machining parameters, cooling and chip removal on the tool life, and the hole quality are investigated. Results indicate that the material removal mechanism of the two kinds of diamond tools is not like the cutting effect of the conventional solid twist drilling but similar to that of grinding. Satisfactory effects in making holes in the composites are obtained— quite acceptable machined hole quality, low costs, and long wear-resistant endurance.

关键词: composites     drilling-grinding     cemented/plated diamond     tool life     machined quality    

秦巴山区人居生活质量研究:关注城市发展建设对相关人群的影响

Robert W. Marans,徐滢

《中国工程科学》 2016年 第18卷 第5期   页码 92-99 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2016.05.013

摘要:

地处秦巴腹地的陕南地区正在开展一项大规模的避险移民工程。此项工程意在通过涵养自然生态、推进地区产业转型和城市就业、加大新城新区建设等以达到防灾、扶贫和提高城乡居民生活水平的目的。本文建议在秦巴山区开展以评估人居生活质量为主题的纵向社会学研究。此项研究主要依靠当地居民从个体视角出发,对生活状况的综合主观评价来衡量移民工程的社会意义。研究重点关注三类人群:已经完成搬迁安置的新移民,尚未搬迁——其中包括在未来有移民意向的农村居民,以及移民迁入地区的原有城镇居民。此项研究可以用于监测移民工程和城乡建设的进展,分析此工程对各个社会群体民生状况的现实影响,并对当地及其他地区政府的后续的政策规划提供参考意见。以此为出发点,本文综述了在社会学领域内生活质量研究的理论发展和研究体系,并针对秦巴山区的具体状况提出了若干建议。

关键词: 生活质量研究     社会调查研究     社会影响评价     移民     新城新区建设     秦巴山区    

Analyzing the distinguishing factors that affect childhood obesity in South Korea

So Jung Yang, Hun-Sung Kim, Kun-Ho Yoon

《医学前沿(英文)》 2018年 第12卷 第6期   页码 707-716 doi: 10.1007/s11684-018-0660-x

摘要:

Understanding obesity in children is crucial because it can lead to adulthood obesity and result in fatal chronic diseases. Distinctive factors associated with obesity in adults have been described, but distinctive factors related to children remain unclear. We analyzed the correlation between the percentage of body mass index and lifestyle habits by conducting surveys on physical, nutritional, and psychological factors, and we used annual physical examination data to compare different traits among elementary school students (n = 197) and middle school students (n = 461). Our study revealed that the computing hours in elementary school students with overweight and obesity were significantly correlated with the percentage of body mass index (r = 0.29 on school days and r = 0.35 on days off, all P<0.05). No statistically significant difference was found (all P>0.05) in the computing hours of middle school students with overweight and obesity. Childhood obesity can cause depression and reduce children’s quality of life because of their distorted body perception. In conclusion, physical factors directly affecting childhood obesity and psychological and environmental factors surrounding a child should be considered.

关键词: screen time     quality of life     eating habits     childhood obesity     percentage of body mass index    

新冠病毒肺炎疫情下基于区块链的医院全生命周期环境管理框架 Article

钟波涛, 高寒, 丁烈云, 王宇航

《工程(英文)》 2023年 第20卷 第1期   页码 208-221 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2022.06.024

摘要:

新冠病毒肺炎疫情持续蔓延,世界各国纷纷通过新建或改造的方式建设了一批应急医院。医院的全生命周期环境管理对预防新冠病毒肺炎院内感染至关重要。为应对病例的激增,新建医院往往需要快速交付使用,工期被极大地压缩,工作流程审批速度加快,无法按照常规流程进行质量检查和验收,增加了感染预防措施执行质量的控制难度。本研究探索了区块链技术在改造应急医院项目工作质量检查流程中的潜力,以保障快速建造模式下医院感染控制措施的有力执行。建立了基于区块链的全生命周期环境管理框架,用于追溯医院在设计、施工和运营阶段中关键感染控制措施的执行过程。当无法及时检查某些工序时,该框架能够支持工序完成后再检查。本研究通过用例阐述了该框架的具体功能和应用场景,为医院快速建造模式下的环境管理提供了基于区块链的解决方案。

关键词: 区块链     环境管理     院内感染控制     工作质量管理     生命周期可追溯性    

Adjuvant chemotherapy versus adjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy after radical surgery for early-stage cervical cancer: a randomized, non-inferiority, multicenter trial

《医学前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第1期   页码 93-104 doi: 10.1007/s11684-021-0892-z

摘要: We conducted a prospective study to assess the non-inferiority of adjuvant chemotherapy alone versus adjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) as an alternative strategy for patients with early-stage (FIGO 2009 stage IB–IIA) cervical cancer having risk factors after surgery. The condition was assessed in terms of prognosis, adverse effects, and quality of life. This randomized trial involved nine centers across China. Eligible patients were randomized to receive adjuvant chemotherapy or CCRT after surgery. The primary end-point was progression-free survival (PFS). From December 2012 to December 2014, 337 patients were subjected to randomization. Final analysis included 329 patients, including 165 in the adjuvant chemotherapy group and 164 in the adjuvant CCRT group. The median follow-up was 72.1 months. The three-year PFS rates were both 91.9%, and the five-year OS was 90.6% versus 90.0% in adjuvant chemotherapy and CCRT groups, respectively. No significant differences were observed in the PFS or OS between groups. The adjusted HR for PFS was 0.854 (95% confidence interval 0.415–1.757; P = 0.667) favoring adjuvant chemotherapy, excluding the predefined non-inferiority boundary of 1.9. The chemotherapy group showed a tendency toward good quality of life. In comparison with post-operative adjuvant CCRT, adjuvant chemotherapy treatment showed non-inferior efficacy in patients with early-stage cervical cancer having pathological risk factors. Adjuvant chemotherapy alone is a favorable alternative post-operative treatment.

关键词: chemotherapy     cervical cancer     lymph node metastasis     concurrent chemoradiotherapy     quality of life    

Whole-life Thinking and Engineering the Future

Roger Flanagan

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2014年 第1卷 第3期   页码 290-296 doi: 10.15302/J-FEM-2014040

摘要: Whole-life thinking for engineers working on the built environment has become more important in a fast changing world. Whole-life thinking is not new, every project attempts to balance the initial capital cost with the operating and maintenance cost of an asset. Engineers are increasingly concerned with complex systems, in which the parts interact with each other and with the outside world in many ways — the relationships between the parts determine how the system behaves. Systems thinking provides one approach to developing a more robust whole-life approach. Systems thinking is a process of understanding how things influence one another within a wider perspective. Complexity, chaos, and risk are endemic in all major projects. New approaches are needed to produce more reliable whole-life predictions. Best value, rather than lowest cost, can be achieved by using whole-life appraisal as a part of the design and delivery strategy.

关键词: whole-life thinking     systems thinking     complexity     chaos     risk management through life    

基于飞机结构寿命包线的飞机结构单机寿命监控

何宇廷

《中国工程科学》 2006年 第8卷 第6期   页码 23-27

摘要:

在分析基准使用条件下飞机结构寿命包线的基础上,给出飞机结构在非基准使用条件下的寿命包线的绘制方法,阐明了在非基准使用条件下对飞机结构进行单机寿命监控的原理与方法。最后以飞机首翻后进行第二次大修的大修间隔期监控为例进行了分析说明。

关键词: 飞机结构     寿命包线     寿命监控     大修间隔期    

Comparison on End-of-Life strategies of WEEE in China based on LCA

Bin Lu, Xiaolong Song, Jianxin Yang, Dong Yang

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第11卷 第5期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-017-0994-7

摘要: As the Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) are upgraded more frequently in China, a large quantity of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) was and will be generated. It becomes an urgent issue to develop and adopt an effective End-of-Life (EoL) strategy for EEE in order to balance the resource recovery and environmental impacts. In an EoL strategy hierarchy for EEE, reuse strategy is usually deemed to be prior to materials recovery and other strategies. But in practice, the advantages and disadvantages of different strategies are always context-dependent. Therefore, main EoL strategies for EEE in China need to be evaluated in environment and resources aspects from the life cycle perspective. In this study, the obsolete refrigerator and Power Supply Unit (PSU) of desktop PC are both taken as the target products. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is applied to assess the environmental impacts of different EoL scenarios in China: Unit Reuse Scenario (URS), Component Reuse Scenario (CRS) and Materials Recovery Scenario (MRS). The LCA results show that the EoL strategies hierarchy is reasonable for the part of computer, but not necessarily suitable for obsolete refrigerators. When the policy makers promote or demote one EoL strategy especially reuse, it is necessary to take subsequent impacts into consideration.

关键词: End-of-Life     Waste electrical and electronic equipment     Life cycle assessment     Reuse    

Bayes estimation of residual life by fusing multisource information

Qian ZHAO, Xiang JIA, Zhi-jun CHENG, Bo GUO

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2018年 第5卷 第4期   页码 524-532 doi: 10.15302/J-FEM-2018034

摘要:

Residual life estimation is essential for reliability engineering. Traditional methods may experience difficulties in estimating the residual life of products with high reliability, long life, and small sample. The Bayes model provides a feasible solution and can be a useful tool for fusing multisource information. In this study, a Bayes model is proposed to estimate the residual life of products by fusing expert knowledge, degradation data, and lifetime data. The linear Wiener process is used to model degradation data, whereas lifetime data are described via the inverse Gaussian distribution. Therefore, the joint maximum likelihood (ML) function can be obtained by combining lifetime and degradation data. Expert knowledge is used according to the maximum entropy method to determine the prior distributions of parameters, thereby making this work different from existing studies that use non-informative prior. The discussion and analysis of different types of expert knowledge also distinguish our research from others. Expert knowledge can be classified into three categories according to practical engineering. Methods for determining prior distribution by using the aforementioned three types of data are presented. The Markov chain Monte Carlo is applied to obtain samples of the parameters and to estimate the residual life of products due to the complexity of the joint ML function and the posterior distribution of parameters. Finally, a numerical example is presented. The effectiveness and practicability of the proposed method are validated by comparing it with residual life estimation that uses non-informative prior. Then, its accuracy and correctness are proven via simulation experiments.

关键词: residual life estimation     Bayes model     linear Wiener process    

A comparison of production system life cycle models

Rajesh ATTRI, Sandeep GROVER

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2012年 第7卷 第3期   页码 305-311 doi: 10.1007/s11465-012-0332-5

摘要:

Companies today need to keep up with the rapidly changing market conditions to stay competitive. The main issues in this paper are related to a company’s market and its competitors. The prediction of market behavior is helpful for a manufacturing enterprise to build efficient production systems. However, these predictions are usually not reliable. A production system is required to adapt to changing markets, but such requirement entails higher cost. Hence, analyzing different life cycle models of the production system is necessary. In this paper, different life cycle models of the production system are compared to evaluate the distinctive features and the limitations of each model. Furthermore, the difference between product life cycle and production life cycle is summarized, and the effect of product life cycle on production life cycle is explained. Finally, a production system life cycle model, along with key activities to be performed in each stage, is proposed specifically for the manufacturing sector.

关键词: production system     life cycle     model     product    

General framework for bridge life cycle design

Junhai MA, Airong CHEN, Jun HE

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2009年 第3卷 第1期   页码 50-56 doi: 10.1007/s11709-009-0004-7

摘要: Based on a detailed illustration for bridge life cycle design which comprises the processes of service life design, aesthetics design, performance design, environmental and ecological design, inspection, maintenance and repair design as well as cost analysis, this paper presented a general framework for bridge life cycle design comprising three design phases and six design processes.

关键词: bridge whole life design     design phase     design process     general framework    

Chemically triggered life control of “smart” hydrogels through click and declick reactions

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第9期   页码 1399-1406 doi: 10.1007/s11705-022-2149-z

摘要: The degradation of polymeric materials is recognized as one of the goals to be fulfilled for the sustainable economy. In this study, a novel methodology was presented to synthesize multiple highly cross-linked polymers (i.e., hydrogels) through amine–thiol scrambling under mild conditions. Amine-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-NH2) was reacted with the representative conjugate acceptors to synthesize hydrogels in organic and aqueous solutions, respectively. The materials above exhibited high water-swelling properties, distributed porous structures, as well as prominent mechanical strengths. It is noteworthy that the mentioned hydrogels could be degraded efficiently in hours to release the original coupling partner, which were induced by ethylene diamine at ambient temperature through amine-amine metathesis. The recovered PEG-NH2 reagent could be employed again to regenerate hydrogels. Due to the multiple architectures and functions in polymeric synthesis, degradation and regeneration, a new generation of “smart” materials is revealed.

关键词: hydrogels     degradation     synthesis     regeneration    

State-of-the-art applications of machine learning in the life cycle of solid waste management

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第4期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-023-1644-x

摘要:

● State-of-the-art applications of machine learning (ML) in solid waste (SW) is presented.

关键词: Machine learning (ML)     Solid waste (SW)     Bibliometrics     SW management     Energy utilization     Life cycle    

Service life prediction of fly ash concrete using an artificial neural network

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第3期   页码 793-805 doi: 10.1007/s11709-021-0717-9

摘要: Carbonation is one of the most aggressive phenomena affecting reinforced concrete structures and causing their degradation over time. Once reinforcement is altered by carbonation, the structure will no longer fulfill service requirements. For this purpose, the present work estimates the lifetime of fly ash concrete by developing a carbonation depth prediction model that uses an artificial neural network technique. A collection of 300 data points was made from experimental results available in the published literature. Backpropagation training of a three-layer perceptron was selected for the calculation of weights and biases of the network to reach the desired performance. Six parameters affecting carbonation were used as input neurons: binder content, fly ash substitution rate, water/binder ratio, CO2 concentration, relative humidity, and concrete age. Moreover, experimental validation carried out for the developed model shows that the artificial neural network has strong potential as a feasible tool to accurately predict the carbonation depth of fly ash concrete. Finally, a mathematical formula is proposed that can be used to successfully estimate the service life of fly ash concrete.

关键词: concrete     fly ash     carbonation     neural networks     experimental validation     service life    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

地下工程的发展提升现代生活质量

Raymond L. Sterling

期刊论文

Investigation on drilling-grinding of CFRP

Yanming QUAN, Wenwang ZHONG

期刊论文

秦巴山区人居生活质量研究:关注城市发展建设对相关人群的影响

Robert W. Marans,徐滢

期刊论文

Analyzing the distinguishing factors that affect childhood obesity in South Korea

So Jung Yang, Hun-Sung Kim, Kun-Ho Yoon

期刊论文

新冠病毒肺炎疫情下基于区块链的医院全生命周期环境管理框架

钟波涛, 高寒, 丁烈云, 王宇航

期刊论文

Adjuvant chemotherapy versus adjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy after radical surgery for early-stage cervical cancer: a randomized, non-inferiority, multicenter trial

期刊论文

Whole-life Thinking and Engineering the Future

Roger Flanagan

期刊论文

基于飞机结构寿命包线的飞机结构单机寿命监控

何宇廷

期刊论文

Comparison on End-of-Life strategies of WEEE in China based on LCA

Bin Lu, Xiaolong Song, Jianxin Yang, Dong Yang

期刊论文

Bayes estimation of residual life by fusing multisource information

Qian ZHAO, Xiang JIA, Zhi-jun CHENG, Bo GUO

期刊论文

A comparison of production system life cycle models

Rajesh ATTRI, Sandeep GROVER

期刊论文

General framework for bridge life cycle design

Junhai MA, Airong CHEN, Jun HE

期刊论文

Chemically triggered life control of “smart” hydrogels through click and declick reactions

期刊论文

State-of-the-art applications of machine learning in the life cycle of solid waste management

期刊论文

Service life prediction of fly ash concrete using an artificial neural network

期刊论文