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Approaches to achieve high grain yield and high resource use efficiency in rice

Jianchang YANG

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2015年 第2卷 第2期   页码 115-123 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2015055

摘要: This article discusses approaches to simultaneously increase grain yield and resource use efficiency in rice. Breeding nitrogen efficient cultivars without sacrificing rice yield potential, improving grain fill in later-flowering inferior spikelets and enhancing harvest index are three important approaches to achieving the dual goal of high grain yield and high resource use efficiency. Deeper root distribution and higher leaf photosynthetic N use efficiency at lower N rates could be used as selection criteria to develop N-efficient cultivars. Enhancing sink activity through increasing sugar-spikelet ratio at the heading time and enhancing the conversion efficiency from sucrose to starch though increasing the ratio of abscisic acid to ethylene in grains during grain fill could effectively improve grain fill in inferior spikelets. Several practices, such as post-anthesis controlled soil drying, an alternate wetting and moderate soil drying regime during the whole growing season, and non-flooded straw mulching cultivation, could substantially increase grain yield and water use efficiency, mainly via enhanced remobilization of stored carbon from vegetative tissues to grains and improved harvest index. Further research is needed to understand synergistic interaction between water and N on crop and soil and the mechanism underlying high resource use efficiency in high-yielding rice.

关键词: rice     nitrogen-efficient cultivar     grain fill     harvest index     nitrogen use efficiency     water use efficiency    

STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING WATER USE EFFICIENCY IN DRYLAND AGROECOSYSTEMS

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第4期   页码 599-602 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE -2021409

The effect of different agricultural management practices on irrigation efficiency, water use efficiency

La ZHUO, Arjen Y. HOEKSTRA

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第4卷 第2期   页码 185-194 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2017149

摘要: This paper explores the effect of varying agricultural management practices on different water efficiency indicators: irrigation efficiency (IE), crop water use efficiency (WUE), and green and blue water footprint (WF). We take winter wheat in an experimental field in Northern China as a case study and consider a dry, average and wet year. We conducted 24 modeling experiments with the AquaCrop model, for all possible combinations of four irrigation techniques, two irrigation strategies and three mulching methods. Results show that deficit irrigation most effectively improved blue water use, by increasing IE (by 5%) and reducing blue WF (by 38%), however with an average 9% yield reduction. Organic or synthetic mulching practices improved WUE (by 4% and 10%, respectively) and reduced blue WF (by 8% and 17%, respectively), with the same yield level. Drip and subsurface drip irrigation improved IE and WUE, but drip irrigation had a relatively large blue WF. Improvements in one water efficiency indicator may cause a decline in another. In particular, WUE can be improved by more irrigation at the cost of the blue WF. Furthermore, increasing IE, for instance by installing drip irrigation, does not necessarily reduce the blue WF.

关键词: field management     irrigation efficiency     water footprint     water productivity     water use efficiency    

Effects of dwarfing genes on water use efficiency of bread wheat

Jiakun YAN, Suiqi ZHANG

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第4卷 第2期   页码 126-134 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2017134

摘要: Climate change has increased the risk of drought, which significantly limits plant productivity. Various ways of increasing water availability and sustaining growth of crop plants in drought-prone environments are available. Genetic advances in grain yields under rainfed conditions have been achieved with the introduction of dwarfing genes. A thorough understanding of the effects of different dwarfing genes on root growth, coleoptile length, grain yields and water using efficiency (WUE) will provide opportunities to select appropriate genes for breeding high WUE and grain yield cultivars. This review focuses on the mechanism involved in genes that reduce plant height and affect root and coleoptile length, their consequent effects on grain yields and WUE, and suggests that for rainfed and irrigation-limited environments, combining GAR and GAI dwarfing genes in breeding may help boost WUE and yields, and more materials from different parental sources should be collected to assess opportunities for potential comprehensive application of specific genes.

关键词: coleoptile length     wheat     dwarfing genes     grain yield     root     water use efficiency    

Improving the efficiency and effectiveness of global phosphorus use: focus on root and rhizosphere levels

null

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第6卷 第4期   页码 357-365 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2019275

摘要:

Phosphorus (P) is essential for life and for efficient crop production, but global P use with limited recycling is inefficient in several sectors, including agronomy. Unfortunately, plant physiologists, agronomists, farmers and end users employ different measures for P use efficiency (PUE), which often masks their values at different scales. The term P use effectiveness, which also considers energetic and sustainability measures in addition to P balances, is also a valuable concept. Major physiological and genetic factors for plant P uptake and utilization have been identified, but there has been limited success in genetically improving PUE of modern crop cultivars. In maize, studies on root architectural and morphological traits appear promising. Rhizosphere processes assist in mobilizing and capturing sparingly soluble phosphate from rock phosphate. Combinations of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms with ammonium-based nitrogen fertilizer, as well as strategies of fertilizer placement near the roots of target crops, can moderately enhance PUE. The desired concentration of P in the products differs, depending on the final use of the crop products as feed, food or for energy conversion, which should be considered during crop production.

关键词: acquisition efficiency     plant growth promoting rhizobacteria     phosphate     use efficiency     utilization efficiency    

Phosphorus use efficiency and fertilizers: future opportunities for improvements

null

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第6卷 第4期   页码 332-340 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2019274

摘要:

The continued supply of phosphate fertilizers that underpin global food production is an imminent crisis. The rock phosphate deposits on which the world depends are not only finite, but some are contaminated, and many are located in geopolitically unstable areas, meaning that fundamental changes will have to take place in order to maintain food production for a growing global population. No single solution exists, but a combination of approaches to phosphorus management is required not only to extend the lifespan of the remaining non-renewable rock phosphate reserves, but to result in a more efficient, sustainable phosphorus cycle. Solutions include improving the efficiency of fertilizer applications to agricultural land, alongside a better understanding of phosphorus cycling in soil-plant systems, and the interactions between soil physics, chemistry and biology, coupled with plant traits. Opportunities exist for the development of plants that can access different forms of soil phosphorus (e.g., organic phosphorus) and that use internal phosphorus more efficiently. The development of different sources of phosphorus fertilizers are inevitably required given the finite nature of the rock phosphate supplies. Clear opportunities exist, and it is now important that a concerted effort to make advances in phosphorus use efficiency is prioritized.

关键词: organic phosphorus     phosphorus fertilizer     phosphorus use efficiency     rock phosphate    

Genetic study and molecular breeding for high phosphorus use efficiency in maize

null

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第6卷 第4期   页码 366-379 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2019278

摘要:

Phosphorus is the second most important macronutrient after nitrogen and it has many vital functions in the life of plants. Most soils have a low available P content, which has become a key limiting factor for increasing crop production. Also, low P use efficiency (PUE) of crops in conjunction with excessive application of P fertilizers has resulted in serious environmental problems. Thus, dissecting the genetic architecture of crop PUE, mining related quantitative trait loci (QTL) and using molecular breeding methods to improve high PUE germplasm are of great significance and serve as an efficient approach for the development of sustainable agriculture. In this review, molecular and phenotypic characteristics of maize inbred lines with high PUE, related QTL and genes as well as low-P responses are summarized. Based on this, a breeding strategy applying genomic selection as the core, and integrating the existing genetic information and molecular breeding techniques is proposed for breeding high PUE maize inbred lines and hybrids.

关键词: maize     phosphorus use efficiency     quantitative trait loci     genetic study     molecular breeding     genomic selection    

LIGHT INTERCEPTION AND USE EFFICIENCY DIFFER WITH MAIZE PLANT DENSITY IN MAIZE-PEANUT INTERCROPPING

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第3期   页码 432-446 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2021403

摘要:

Intercropping increases crop yields by optimizing light interception and/or use efficiency. Although intercropping combinations and metrics have been reported, the effects of plant density on light use are not well documented. Here, we examined the light interception and use efficiency in maize-peanut intercropping with different maize plant densities in two row configurations in semiarid dryland agriculture over a two-year period. The field experiment comprised four cropping systems, i.e. monocropped maize, monocropped peanut, maize-peanut intercropping with two rows of maize and four rows of peanut, intercropping with four rows of maize and four rows of peanut, and three maize plant densities (3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 plants m−1 row) in both monocropped and intercropping maize. The mean total light interception in intercropping across years and densities was 779 MJ·m−2, 5.5% higher than in monocropped peanut (737 MJ·m−2) and 7.6% lower than in monocropped maize (843 MJ·m−2). Increasing maize density increased light interception in monocropped maize but did not affect the total light interception in the intercrops. Across years the LUE of maize was 2.9 g·MJ−1 and was not affected by cropping system but increased with maize plant density. The LUE of peanut was enhanced in intercropping, especially in a wetter year. The yield advantage of maize-peanut intercropping resulted mainly from the LUE of peanut. These results will help to optimize agronomic management and system design and provide evidence for system level light use efficiency in intercropping.

 

关键词: dryland agriculture     light interception     light use efficiency     maize-peanut intercropping     semiarid    

PROGRESS ON IMPROVING AGRICULTURAL NITROGEN USE EFFICIENCY: UK-CHINA VIRTUAL JOINT CENTERS ON NITROGEN

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第9卷 第3期   页码 475-489 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2022459

摘要:

● Virtual joint centers on N agronomy were established between UK and China.

关键词: CINAg     N-CIRCLE     nitrogen use efficiency     reactive nitrogen     sustainable production    

End-use energy utilization efficiency of Nigerian residential sector

Fidelis I. ABAM,Olayinka S. OHUNAKIN,Bethrand N. NWANKWOJIKE,Ekwe B. EKWE

《能源前沿(英文)》 2014年 第8卷 第3期   页码 322-334 doi: 10.1007/s11708-014-0329-3

摘要: In this paper, the end-use efficiencies of the different energy carriers and the overall energy efficiency in the Nigerian residential sector (NRS) were estimated using energy and exergy analysis. The energy and exergy flows were considered from 2006 to 2011. The overall energy efficiency ranges from 19.15% in 2006 to 20.19% in 2011 with a mean of (19.96±0.23)% while the overall exergy efficiency ranges from 4.34% in 2006 to 4.40% in 2011 with a mean of (4.31±0.059)%. The energy and exergy efficiency margin was 15.58% with a marginal improvement of 0.07% and 0.02%, respectively when compared with previous results. The contribution of the energy carriers to the total energy and exergy inputs were 1.45% and 1.43% for electricity, 1.95% and 3% for fossil fuel and 96.6% and 95.57% for bio-fuel. The result shows that approximately 65% of the residence use wood and biomass for domestic cooking and heating, and only a fraction of the residence have access to electricity. LPG was found to be the most efficient while kerosene, charcoal, wood and other biomass the least in this order. Electricity utilization exergy efficiency is affected by vapor-compression air conditioning application apart from low potential energy applications. In addition, this paper has suggested alternatives in the end-use application and has demonstrated the relevance of exergy analysis in enhancing sustainable energy policies and management and improved integration techniques.

关键词: end-use     energy     exergy efficiency     residential sector     Nigeria    

Symbiotic performance, shoot biomass and water-use efficiency of three groundnut (

Sofiya K. MUHABA, Felix D. DAKORA

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2020年 第7卷 第4期   页码 455-466 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2020354

摘要:

Phosphorus is a key nutrient element involved in energy transfer for cellular metabolism, respiration and photosynthesis and its supply at low levels can affect legume nodulation, N fixation, and C assimilation. A two-year field study was conducted in Ethiopia in 2012 and 2013 to evaluate the effects of P supply on growth, symbiotic N nutrition, grain yield and water-use efficiency of three groundnut genotypes. Supplying P to the genotypes significantly increased their shoot biomass, symbiotic performance, grain yield, and C accumulation. There was, however, no effect on shoot δ C values in either year. Compared to the zero-P control, supplying 40 kg·ha P markedly increased shoot biomass by 77% and 66% in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In both years, groundnut grain yields were much higher at 20 and 30 kg·ha P. Phosphorus supply markedly reduced shoot δ N values and increased the %Ndfa and amount of N-fixed, indicating the direct involvement of P in promoting N fixation in nodulated groundnut. The three genotypes differed significantly in δ N, %Ndfa, N-fixed, grain yield, C concentration, and δ C. The phosphorus × genotype interaction was also significant for shoot DM, N content, N-fixed and soil N uptake.

关键词: shoot yield     N-fixed     %Ndfa     δ15N     δ13C     water-use efficiency    

NUTRIENT USE EFFICIENCY AND LOSSES OF INDUSTRIAL FARMS AND MIXED SMALLHOLDINGS: LESSONS FROM THE NORTH

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第1期

摘要:

• Degree of integration of crop and livestock was insufficient on mixed smallholdings.

• Liquid manure discharges on industrial farms hamper the closing of nutrient loops.

• Coupling with local crop farms is encouraged to achieve integration of crop-livestock systems.

 

The proportion of industrial livestock in China has increased over the past 30 years, which increases animal performance but causes the decoupling of crop and livestock production. Here, we aimed to quantify nutrient flows, nutrient use efficiency, and nutrient losses in different livestock systems in the North China Plain based on the NUFER-farm model. Activity data were collected by face-to-face surveys on pig and dairy (41 livestock farms) during 2016–2018. The two systems included industrial farms and mixed smallholdings. In mixed smallholdings, 4.0% and 9.6% of pig and dairy feed dry matter (DM) were derived from household farmland, but 4.8% and 9.3% of manure DM recycled to household farmland. Nutrient use efficiency in industrial farms was higher than in mixed smallholdings at animal level, herd level, and system level. To produce 1 kg N and P in animal products, nutrient losses in industrial pig farms (2.0 kg N and 1.3 kg P) were lower than in mixed pig smallholdings, nutrient losses in industrial dairy farms (2.7 kg N and 2.2 kg P) were slightly higher than in mixed dairy smallholdings. Liquid manure discharge in industrial farms was the main losses pathway in contrast to mixed smallholdings. This study suggests that feed localization can reduce nutrient surpluses at the district level. It is necessary to improve manure management and increase the degree of integrated crop-livestock in smallholdings. In industrial farms, it is desirable to increase the liquid manure recycling ratio through cooperating livestock and crop production at the district level.

Managing nutrient for both food security and environmental sustainability in China: an experiment for the world

Fusuo ZHANG, Zhenling CUI, Weifeng ZHANG

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第1卷 第1期   页码 53-61 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2014006

摘要: The challenges of how to simultaneously ensure global food security, improve nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and protect the environment have received increasing attention. However, the dominant agricultural paradigm still considers high yield and reducing environmental impacts to be in conflict with one another. Here we examine a Three-Step-Strategy of past 20 years to produce more with less in China, showing that tremendous progress has been made to reduce N fertilizer input without sacrificing crop yield. The first step is to use technology for in-season root-zone nutrient management to significantly increase NUE. The second is to use technology for integrated nutrient management to increase both yield and NUE by 15%–20%. The third step is to use technology for integrated soil-crop system management to increase yield and NUE by 30%–50% simultaneously. These advances can thus be considered an effective agricultural paradigm to ensure food security, while increasing NUE and improving environmental quality.

关键词: integrated nutrient management     integrated soil-crop system management     environmental protection     food security     resource use efficiency    

Use of float consumption rate in resource leveling of construction projects

Atilla DAMCI, Gul POLAT, Firat Dogu AKIN, Harun TURKOGLU

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2022年 第9卷 第1期   页码 135-147 doi: 10.1007/s42524-020-0118-0

摘要: The management of resources has been claimed to be as important as scheduling methods. Inefficiency in managing resources may bring about severe delays and cost overruns caused by resource shortages in some cases and/or idle resources in others. Therefore, resources should be utilized efficiently to prevent project failures. Resource leveling is one of the approaches that are used for the management of resources. It aims to minimize fluctuations, peaks, and valleys in resource utilization without changing the completion time of a project and the number of resources required. Although the main principle behind traditional resource leveling is achieving an even flow of resources while the original project duration remains unchanged, the literature supports the need to develop an efficient model that discriminates among the activities that are selected for participation in resource leveling. For this purpose, this study has developed a model that considers the float consumption rates of activities in resource leveling. The float consumption rate is the percentage that is set to determine the maximum amount of float which will be consumed to shift the start time of the activity. The proposed model allows a scheduler to assign float consumption rates to each activity that can be used during the resource leveling procedure. When the required information is inputted, the proposed model automatically changes the required daily resources as it shifts the noncritical activities along their available total float times. The proposed model is expected to minimize the likelihood of severe delays and cost overruns. The model is demonstrated by constructing a network and its resource utilization histograms.

关键词: resource management     resource leveling     float consumption rate     scheduling    

Divergent Changes in Vegetation Greenness, Productivity, and Rainfall Use Efficiency Are Characteristic

Yang Yu,Ting Hua,Liding Chen,Zhiqiang Zhang,Paulo Pereira,

《工程(英文)》 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2023.07.012

摘要: Globally, vegetation has been changing dramatically. The vegetation–water dynamic is key to understanding ecosystem structure and functioning in water-limited ecosystems. Continual satellite monitoring has detected global vegetation greening. However, a greenness increase does not mean that ecosystem functions increase. The intricate interplays resulting from the relationships between vegetation and precipitation must be more adequately comprehended. In this study, satellite data, for example, leaf area index (LAI), net primary production (NPP) and rainfall use efficiency (RUE), were used to quantify vegetation dynamics and their relationship with rainfall in different reaches of the Yellow River Basin (YRB). A sequential regression method was used to detect trends of NPP sensitivity to rainfall. The results showed that 34.53% of the YRB exhibited a significant greening trend since 2000. Among them, 20.54%, 53.37%, and 16.73% of upper, middle, and lower reach areas showed a significant positive trend, respectively. NPP showed a similar trend to LAI in the YRB upper, middle, and lower reaches. A notable difference was noted in the distributions and trends of RUE across the upper, middle, and lower reaches. Moreover, there were significant trends in vegetation–rainfall sensitivity in 16.86% of the YRB’s middle reaches—14.08% showed negative trends and 2.78% positive trends. A total of 8.41% of the YRB exhibited a marked increase in LAI, NPP, and RUE. Subsequently, strategic locations reliant on the correlation between vegetation and rainfall were identified and designated for restoration planning purposes to propose future ecological restoration efforts. Our analysis indicates that the middle reach of the YRB exhibited the most significant variation in vegetation greenness and productivity. The present study underscores the significance of examining the correlation between vegetation and rainfall within the context of the high-quality development strategy of the YRB. The outcomes of our analysis and the proposed ecological restoration framework can provide decision-makers with valuable insights for executing rational basin pattern optimization and sustainable management.

关键词: Vegetation greenness     Vegetation productivity     Rainfall use efficiency     Sensitivity     Yellow River Basin    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Approaches to achieve high grain yield and high resource use efficiency in rice

Jianchang YANG

期刊论文

STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING WATER USE EFFICIENCY IN DRYLAND AGROECOSYSTEMS

期刊论文

The effect of different agricultural management practices on irrigation efficiency, water use efficiency

La ZHUO, Arjen Y. HOEKSTRA

期刊论文

Effects of dwarfing genes on water use efficiency of bread wheat

Jiakun YAN, Suiqi ZHANG

期刊论文

Improving the efficiency and effectiveness of global phosphorus use: focus on root and rhizosphere levels

null

期刊论文

Phosphorus use efficiency and fertilizers: future opportunities for improvements

null

期刊论文

Genetic study and molecular breeding for high phosphorus use efficiency in maize

null

期刊论文

LIGHT INTERCEPTION AND USE EFFICIENCY DIFFER WITH MAIZE PLANT DENSITY IN MAIZE-PEANUT INTERCROPPING

期刊论文

PROGRESS ON IMPROVING AGRICULTURAL NITROGEN USE EFFICIENCY: UK-CHINA VIRTUAL JOINT CENTERS ON NITROGEN

期刊论文

End-use energy utilization efficiency of Nigerian residential sector

Fidelis I. ABAM,Olayinka S. OHUNAKIN,Bethrand N. NWANKWOJIKE,Ekwe B. EKWE

期刊论文

Symbiotic performance, shoot biomass and water-use efficiency of three groundnut (

Sofiya K. MUHABA, Felix D. DAKORA

期刊论文

NUTRIENT USE EFFICIENCY AND LOSSES OF INDUSTRIAL FARMS AND MIXED SMALLHOLDINGS: LESSONS FROM THE NORTH

期刊论文

Managing nutrient for both food security and environmental sustainability in China: an experiment for the world

Fusuo ZHANG, Zhenling CUI, Weifeng ZHANG

期刊论文

Use of float consumption rate in resource leveling of construction projects

Atilla DAMCI, Gul POLAT, Firat Dogu AKIN, Harun TURKOGLU

期刊论文

Divergent Changes in Vegetation Greenness, Productivity, and Rainfall Use Efficiency Are Characteristic

Yang Yu,Ting Hua,Liding Chen,Zhiqiang Zhang,Paulo Pereira,

期刊论文