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Degradation of refractory organics in concentrated leachate by the Fenton process: Central compositedesign for process optimization

Senem Yazici Guvenc, Gamze Varank

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第1期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-020-1294-1

摘要: Abstract • 90% total COD, 95.3% inert COD and 97.2% UV254 were removed. • High R2 values (over 95%) for all responses were obtained with CCD. • Operational cost was calculated to be 0.238 €/g CODremoved for total COD removal. • Fenton oxidation was highly-efficient method for inert COD removal. • BOD5/COD ratio of leachate concentrate raised from 0.04 to 0.4. The primary aim of this study is inert COD removal from leachate nanofiltration concentrate because of its high concentration of resistant organic pollutants. Within this framework, this study focuses on the treatability of leachate nanofiltration concentrate through Fenton oxidation and optimization of process parameters to reach the maximum pollutant removal by using response surface methodology (RSM). Initial pH, Fe2+ concentration, H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio and oxidation time are selected as the independent variables, whereas total COD, color, inert COD and UV254 removal are selected as the responses. According to the ANOVA results, the R2 values of all responses are found to be over 95%. Under the optimum conditions determined by the model (pH: 3.99, Fe2+: 150 mmol/L, H2O2/Fe2+: 3.27 and oxidation time: 84.8 min), the maximum COD removal efficiency is determined as 91.4% by the model. The color, inert COD and UV254 removal efficiencies are determined to be 99.9%, 97.2% and 99.5%, respectively, by the model, whereas the total COD, color, inert COD and UV254 removal efficiencies are found respectively to be 90%, 96.5%, 95.3% and 97.2%, experimentally under the optimum operating conditions. The Fenton process improves the biodegradability of the leachate NF concentrate, increasing the BOD5/COD ratio from the value of 0.04 to the value of 0.4. The operational cost of the process is calculated to be 0.238 €/g CODremoved. The results indicate that the Fenton oxidation process is an efficient and economical technology in improvement of the biological degradability of leachate nanofiltration concentrate and in removal of resistant organic pollutants.

关键词: Concentrated leachate     Fenton oxidation     Central composite design     Biodegradability     Inert COD    

Applications of the crystallization process in the pharmaceutical industry

Sohrab ROHANI

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2010年 第4卷 第1期   页码 2-9 doi: 10.1007/s11705-009-0297-z

摘要: The applications of the crystallization technique in the pharmaceutical industry as a purification and separation process for the isolation and synthesis of pure active pharmaceutical ingredients (API), co-crystals, controlled release pulmonary drug delivery, and separation of chiral isomers are briefly discussed using a few case studies. The effect of process variables and solvent on the polymorphism and morphology of stavudine is discussed. The implementation of external control in the form of feedback and real-time optimal control using cooling and antisolvent crystallization of paracetamol in water-isopropyl alcohol is introduced. Two methods to prepare micron-sized drug particles, namely, micro-crystallization and polymer-coated API-loaded magnetic nanoparticles for pulmonary drug delivery, are discussed. The significance of co-crystals in drug administration is highlighted using the theophylline-nicotinamide co-crystal system. Resolution of chloromandelic acid derivatives, a racemic compound, is achieved using direct crystallization and diastereomeric salts crystallization. The crystal structures of diastereomeric salts of chloromandelic acid and phenylethylamine are determined. The structure comparison between the less soluble and more soluble salts shows that weak interactions such as CH/π interactions and van der Waals forces contribute to chiral recognition when the hydrogen bonding patterns are similar.

关键词: feedback     morphology     pulmonary     paracetamol     recognition    

Review on mechanism and process of surface polishing using lasers

Arun KRISHNAN, Fengzhou FANG

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第14卷 第3期   页码 299-319 doi: 10.1007/s11465-019-0535-0

摘要: Laser polishing is a technology of smoothening the surface of various materials with highly intense laser beams. When these beams impact on the material surface to be polished, the surface starts to be melted due to the high temperature. The melted material is then relocated from the ‘peaks to valleys’ under the multidirectional action of surface tension. By varying the process parameters such as beam intensity, energy density, spot diameter, and feed rate, different rates of surface roughness can be achieved. High precision polishing of surfaces can be done using laser process. Currently, laser polishing has extended its applications from photonics to molds as well as bio-medical sectors. Conventional polishing techniques have many drawbacks such as less capability of polishing freeform surfaces, environmental pollution, long processing time, and health hazards for the operators. Laser polishing on the other hand eliminates all the mentioned drawbacks and comes as a promising technology that can be relied for smoothening of initial topography of the surfaces irrespective of the complexity of the surface. Majority of the researchers performed laser polishing on materials such as steel, titanium, and its alloys because of its low cost and reliability. This article gives a detailed overview of the laser polishing mechanism by explaining various process parameters briefly to get a better understanding about the entire polishing process. The advantages and applications are also explained clearly to have a good knowledge about the importance of laser polishing in the future.

关键词: laser polishing     surface roughness     process parameters     mechanism    

Special issue on “Green chemical process and intensification”

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第11期   页码 1533-1535 doi: 10.1007/s11705-022-2263-y

Tool path strategy and cutting process monitoring in intelligent machining

Ming CHEN, Chengdong WANG, Qinglong AN, Weiwei MING

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2018年 第13卷 第2期   页码 232-242 doi: 10.1007/s11465-018-0469-y

摘要:

Intelligent machining is a current focus in advanced manufacturing technology, and is characterized by high accuracy and efficiency. A central technology of intelligent machining—the cutting process online monitoring and optimization—is urgently needed for mass production. In this research, the cutting process online monitoring and optimization in jet engine impeller machining, cranio-maxillofacial surgery, and hydraulic servo valve deburring are introduced as examples of intelligent machining. Results show that intelligent tool path optimization and cutting process online monitoring are efficient techniques for improving the efficiency, quality, and reliability of machining.

关键词: intelligent machining     tool path strategy     process optimization     online monitoring    

Seasonal and treatment-process variations in invertebrates in drinking water treatment plants

Zhiling Wu, Xianchun Tang, Hongbin Chen

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第4期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-020-1354-6

摘要: Abstract • Seasonal and treatment-process variations in invertebrates in a DWTP were analyzed. • The propagation and leakage of invertebrates in BAC filter were the most serious. • Invertebrates can survive and reproduce in chlorine disinfected clear water tanks. • Proportions of endogenous invertebrates increased along the treatment process. Problems associated with excessive propagation and leakage of invertebrates in drinking water have received increasing attention in recent years. We performed a monthly survey of invertebrate abundance and taxa in the effluent of each treatment stage in a drinking water treatment plant between May 2015 and April 2016 and analyzed seasonal and treatment-process variations in invertebrates. The results showed that invertebrate abundances in raw water, effluent of the biological activated carbon (BAC) filter, and finished water significantly correlated with water temperature, whereas no correlation was observed between water temperature and invertebrate abundance in the effluents of the sedimentation tank and sand filter. The dominant taxa in the effluent of each treatment stage were rotifers, nematodes, and crustaceans. The sedimentation tank could efficiently remove invertebrates with an annual average removal rate of 92%. The propagation and leakage of invertebrates occurred in the sand and BAC filters but more seriously in the latter. The average reproduction rate in the BAC filter was 268.8% with rotifers as the taxon that leaked the most. Invertebrate survival and reproduction were also observed in the chlorine-disinfected clean water reservoir with an average reproduction rate of 41.9%. Owing to differences in chlorine resistance, the reproduction ability of the dominant taxa was in the order nematodes>crustaceans>rotifers. The proportion of endogenous invertebrates gradually increased along the treatment process. The average proportion of endogenous invertebrates in the finished water was higher than 79.0%. Our findings suggested that waterworks should pay more attention to endogenous invertebrate growth.

关键词: Invertebrates     Drinking water     Seasonal variations     Treatment process    

Sulfate digestion process for high purity TiO

T. A. LASHEEN

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2009年 第3卷 第2期   页码 155-160 doi: 10.1007/s11705-009-0005-z

摘要: A titania slag product of Rosetta ilmenite assaying 72% TiO is treated by the sulfate process option of the pigmentary TiO manufacture. The relevant factors of acid concentration, particle size, slag/acid ratio besides the reaction temperature, and time have been studied. After dissolving the cured mass in dilute acid and clarification, the obtained solution was subjected to hydrolysis of its titanium content. The final product was bleached under reducing conditions to redissolve the residual coloring impurities before being dewatered and calcinated. The obtained results indicated that a leaching efficiency of about 92% was realized due to the presence of some refractory components in the working slag material, namely, rutile and magnesium iron titanate. The obtained white pigment assay attained up to 99.85% TiO , while the analyzed impurities involve 77 ppm Mn and only 14 and 7 ppm of total iron and V, respectively.

关键词: titania     slag     sulfate process     pigment    

Multiscale process systems engineering—analysis and design of chemical and energy systems from moleculardesign up to process optimization

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第2期   页码 137-140 doi: 10.1007/s11705-021-2135-x

Combined process of biofiltration and ozone oxidation as an advanced treatment process for wastewater

Xinwei LI,Hanchang SHI,Kuixiao LI,Liang ZHANG

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2015年 第9卷 第6期   页码 1076-1083 doi: 10.1007/s11783-015-0770-5

摘要: The effluent of a wastewater treatment plant was treated in a pilot plant for reclaimed water production through the denitrification biofilter (DNBF) process, ozonation (O ), and biologic aerated filtration (BAF). The combined process demonstrated good removal performance of conventional pollutants, including concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (27.8 mg·L ) and total nitrogen (9.9 mg·L ) in the final effluent, which met the local discharge standards and water reuse purposes. Micropollutants (e.g., antibiotics and endocrine-disrupting chemicals) were also significantly removed during the proposed process. Ozonation exhibited high antibiotic removal efficiencies, especially for tetracycline (94%). However, micropollutant removal efficiency was negatively affected by the nitrite produced by DNBF. Acute toxicity variations of the combined process were estimated by utilizing luminescent bacteria. Inhibition rate increased from 9% to 15% during ozonation. Carbonyl compound concentrations (e.g., aldehydes and ketones) also increased by 58% as by-products, which consequently increased toxicity. However, toxicity eventually became as low as that of the influent because the by-products were effectively removed by BAF. The combined DNBF/O /BAF process is suitable for the advanced treatment of reclaimed water because it can thoroughly remove pollutants and toxicity.

关键词: wastewater treatment     micropollutant removal     ozonation     biofiltration     toxicity    

Interfacial induction and regulation for microscale crystallization process: a critical review

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第6期   页码 838-853 doi: 10.1007/s11705-021-2129-8

摘要: Microscale crystallization is at the frontier of chemical engineering, material science, and biochemical research and is affected by many factors. The precise regulation and control of microscale crystal processes is still a major challenge. In the heterogeneous induced nucleation process, the chemical and micro/nanostructural characteristics of the interface play a dominant role. Ideal crystal products can be obtained by modifying the interface characteristics, which has been proven to be a promising strategy. This review illustrates the application of interface properties, including chemical characteristics (hydrophobicity and functional groups) and the morphology of micro/nanostructures (rough structure and cavities, pore shape and pore size, surface porosity, channels), in various microscale crystallization controls and process intensification. Finally, possible future research and development directions are outlined to emphasize the importance of interfacial crystallization control and regulation for crystal engineering.

关键词: interfacial crystallization     heterogeneous nucleation     supersaturation     micro/nanostructure     process control and intensification    

A stepwise process for carbon dioxide sequestration using magnesium silicates

Johan FAGERLUND, Experience NDUAGU, Ron ZEVENHOVEN, Inês ROMÃO,

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2010年 第4卷 第2期   页码 133-141 doi: 10.1007/s11705-009-0259-5

摘要: This work involves the production of magnesium in the form of Mg(OH) from serpentinite rock (nickel mine tailing) material followed by conversion into MgCO using a pressurised fluidised bed (PFB) reactor operating at 400°C–600°C and pressures up to 2.85MPa. Our approach is rooted in the thermodynamic fact that the reaction between Mg(OH) and gaseous CO forming MgCO and water releases significant amounts of heat. The main problem is, however, the chemical kinetics; the reaction is slow and has to be accelerated in order to be used in an economically viable process for large-scale (~1Mt/a) CO sequestration. We have constructed a lab-scale PFB reactor test-setup for optimising the carbonation reaction. At high enough temperatures and conversion levels the reaction should provide the heat for the proceeding Mg(OH) production step, making the overall process energy neutral. So far we have been able to achieve a conversion degree of 26% at 500°C and 2.85MPa after 30min (particle size 125–212μm). In this paper the test facility and our latest results and progress on CO mineral carbonation are summarised. Also, the possible integration of the iron as a feedstock for iron and steel production will be briefly addressed. An interesting side-effect of this carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) route is that significant amounts of iron are obtained from the serpentinite rock material. This is released during the Mg(OH) production and can be of great interest to the iron- and steel producing sector, which at the same time is Finland’s largest CO producer.

关键词: carbonation reaction     reactor     producer     large-scale     process    

Equipment–process–strategy integration for sustainable machining: a review

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第18卷 第3期 doi: 10.1007/s11465-023-0752-4

摘要: Although the manufacturing industry has improved the quality of processing, optimization and upgrading must be performed to meet the requirements of global sustainable development. Sustainable production is considered to be a favorable strategy for achieving machining upgrades characterized by high quality, high efficiency, energy savings, and emission reduction. Sustainable production has aroused widespread interest, but only a few scholars have studied the sustainability of machining from multiple dimensions. The sustainability of machining must be investigated multidimensionally and accurately. Thus, this study explores the sustainability of machining from the aspects of equipment, process, and strategy. In particular, the equipment, process, and strategy of sustainable machining are systematically analyzed and integrated into a research framework. Then, this study analyzes sustainable machining-oriented machining equipment from the aspects of machine tools, cutting tools, and materials such as cutting fluid. Machining processes are explored as important links of sustainable machining from the aspects of dry cutting, microlubrication, microcutting, low-temperature cutting, and multidirectional cutting. The strategies for sustainable machining are also analyzed from the aspects of energy-saving control, machining simulation, and process optimization of machine tools. Finally, opportunities and challenges, including policies and regulations toward sustainable machining, are discussed. This study is expected to offer prospects for sustainable machining development and strategies for implementing sustainable machining.

关键词: sustainable machining     equipment     process     strategy     manufacturing    

A novel multimode process monitoring method integrating LDRSKM with Bayesian inference

Shi-jin REN,Yin LIANG,Xiang-jun ZHAO,Mao-yun YANG

《信息与电子工程前沿(英文)》 2015年 第16卷 第8期   页码 617-633 doi: 10.1631/FITEE.1400263

摘要: A local discriminant regularized soft -means (LDRSKM) method with Bayesian inference is proposed for multimode process monitoring. LDRSKM extends the regularized soft -means algorithm by exploiting the local and non-local geometric information of the data and generalized linear discriminant analysis to provide a better and more meaningful data partition. LDRSKM can perform clustering and subspace selection simultaneously, enhancing the separability of data residing in different clusters. With the data partition obtained, kernel support vector data description (KSVDD) is used to establish the monitoring statistics and control limits. Two Bayesian inference based global fault detection indicators are then developed using the local monitoring results associated with principal and residual subspaces. Based on clustering analysis, Bayesian inference and manifold learning methods, the within and cross-mode correlations, and local geometric information can be exploited to enhance monitoring performances for nonlinear and non-Gaussian processes. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method are evaluated using the Tennessee Eastman benchmark process.

关键词: Multimode process monitoring     Local discriminant regularized soft k-means clustering     Kernel support vector data description     Bayesian inference     Tennessee Eastman process    

Real time monitoring of bioreactor mAb IgG3 cell culture process dynamics via Fourier transform infraredspectroscopy: Implications for enabling cell culture process analytical technology?

Huiquan Wu, Erik Read, Maury White, Brittany Chavez, Kurt Brorson, Cyrus Agarabi, Mansoor Khan

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2015年 第9卷 第3期   页码 386-406 doi: 10.1007/s11705-015-1533-3

摘要: Compared to small molecule process analytical technology (PAT) applications, biotechnology product PAT applications have certain unique challenges and opportunities. Understanding process dynamics of bioreactor cell culture process is essential to establish an appropriate process control strategy for biotechnology product PAT applications. Inline spectroscopic techniques for real time monitoring of bioreactor cell culture process have the distinct potential to develop PAT approaches in manufacturing biotechnology drug products. However, the use of inline Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques for bioreactor cell culture process monitoring has not been reported. In this work, real time inline FTIR Spectroscopy was applied to a lab scale bioreactor mAb IgG3 cell culture fluid biomolecular dynamic model. The technical feasibility of using FTIR Spectroscopy for real time tracking and monitoring four key cell culture metabolites (including glucose, glutamine, lactate, and ammonia) and protein yield at increasing levels of complexity (simple binary system, fully formulated media, actual bioreactor cell culture process) was evaluated via a stepwise approach. The FTIR fingerprints of the key metabolites were identified. The multivariate partial least squares (PLS) calibration models were established to correlate the process FTIR spectra with the concentrations of key metabolites and protein yield of in-process samples, either individually for each metabolite and protein or globally for all four metabolites simultaneously. Applying the 2 derivative pre-processing algorithm to the FTIR spectra helps to reduce the number of PLS latent variables needed significantly and thus simplify the interpretation of the PLS models. The validated PLS models show promise in predicting the concentration profiles of glucose, glutamine, lactate, and ammonia and protein yield over the course of the bioreactor cell culture process. Therefore, this work demonstrated the technical feasibility of real time monitoring of the bioreactor cell culture process via FTIR spectroscopy. Its implications for enabling cell culture PAT were discussed.

关键词: process analytical technology (PAT)     Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy     partial least squares (PLS) regression     mouse IgG3     bioreactor cell culture process     real time process monitoring    

Synergistic optimization framework for the process synthesis and design of biorefineries

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第2期   页码 251-273 doi: 10.1007/s11705-021-2071-9

摘要: The conceptual process design of novel bioprocesses in biorefinery setups is an important task, which remains yet challenging due to several limitations. We propose a novel framework incorporating superstructure optimization and simulation-based optimization synergistically. In this context, several approaches for superstructure optimization based on different surrogate models can be deployed. By means of a case study, the framework is introduced and validated, and the different superstructure optimization approaches are benchmarked. The results indicate that even though surrogate-based optimization approaches alleviate the underlying computational issues, there remains a potential issue regarding their validation. The development of appropriate surrogate models, comprising the selection of surrogate type, sampling type, and size for training and cross-validation sets, are essential factors. Regarding this aspect, satisfactory validation metrics do not ensure a successful outcome from its embedded use in an optimization problem. Furthermore, the framework’s synergistic effects by sequentially performing superstructure optimization to determine candidate process topologies and simulation-based optimization to consolidate the process design under uncertainty offer an alternative and promising approach. These findings invite for a critical assessment of surrogate-based optimization approaches and point out the necessity of benchmarking to ensure consistency and quality of optimized solutions.

关键词: biotechnology     surrogate modelling     superstructure optimization     simulation-based optimization     process design    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Degradation of refractory organics in concentrated leachate by the Fenton process: Central compositedesign for process optimization

Senem Yazici Guvenc, Gamze Varank

期刊论文

Applications of the crystallization process in the pharmaceutical industry

Sohrab ROHANI

期刊论文

Review on mechanism and process of surface polishing using lasers

Arun KRISHNAN, Fengzhou FANG

期刊论文

Special issue on “Green chemical process and intensification”

期刊论文

Tool path strategy and cutting process monitoring in intelligent machining

Ming CHEN, Chengdong WANG, Qinglong AN, Weiwei MING

期刊论文

Seasonal and treatment-process variations in invertebrates in drinking water treatment plants

Zhiling Wu, Xianchun Tang, Hongbin Chen

期刊论文

Sulfate digestion process for high purity TiO

T. A. LASHEEN

期刊论文

Multiscale process systems engineering—analysis and design of chemical and energy systems from moleculardesign up to process optimization

期刊论文

Combined process of biofiltration and ozone oxidation as an advanced treatment process for wastewater

Xinwei LI,Hanchang SHI,Kuixiao LI,Liang ZHANG

期刊论文

Interfacial induction and regulation for microscale crystallization process: a critical review

期刊论文

A stepwise process for carbon dioxide sequestration using magnesium silicates

Johan FAGERLUND, Experience NDUAGU, Ron ZEVENHOVEN, Inês ROMÃO,

期刊论文

Equipment–process–strategy integration for sustainable machining: a review

期刊论文

A novel multimode process monitoring method integrating LDRSKM with Bayesian inference

Shi-jin REN,Yin LIANG,Xiang-jun ZHAO,Mao-yun YANG

期刊论文

Real time monitoring of bioreactor mAb IgG3 cell culture process dynamics via Fourier transform infraredspectroscopy: Implications for enabling cell culture process analytical technology?

Huiquan Wu, Erik Read, Maury White, Brittany Chavez, Kurt Brorson, Cyrus Agarabi, Mansoor Khan

期刊论文

Synergistic optimization framework for the process synthesis and design of biorefineries

期刊论文