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Approaches to achieve high grain yield and high resource use efficiency in rice

Jianchang YANG

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2015年 第2卷 第2期   页码 115-123 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2015055

摘要: This article discusses approaches to simultaneously increase grain yield and resource use efficiency in rice. Breeding nitrogen efficient cultivars without sacrificing rice yield potential, improving grain fill in later-flowering inferior spikelets and enhancing harvest index are three important approaches to achieving the dual goal of high grain yield and high resource use efficiency. Deeper root distribution and higher leaf photosynthetic N use efficiency at lower N rates could be used as selection criteria to develop N-efficient cultivars. Enhancing sink activity through increasing sugar-spikelet ratio at the heading time and enhancing the conversion efficiency from sucrose to starch though increasing the ratio of abscisic acid to ethylene in grains during grain fill could effectively improve grain fill in inferior spikelets. Several practices, such as post-anthesis controlled soil drying, an alternate wetting and moderate soil drying regime during the whole growing season, and non-flooded straw mulching cultivation, could substantially increase grain yield and water use efficiency, mainly via enhanced remobilization of stored carbon from vegetative tissues to grains and improved harvest index. Further research is needed to understand synergistic interaction between water and N on crop and soil and the mechanism underlying high resource use efficiency in high-yielding rice.

关键词: rice     nitrogen-efficient cultivar     grain fill     harvest index     nitrogen use efficiency     water use efficiency    

Influence of soft rock-fill material as dam embankment with central bituminous concrete membrane

Peter TSCHERNUTTER

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2011年 第5卷 第1期   页码 63-70 doi: 10.1007/s11709-010-0016-3

摘要: This paper demonstrates the difficulties in determining the relevant material parameters for a valuation of the deformation behavior of the up- and downstream dam shell by means of an embankment dam of medium height. Laboratory as well as field tests on solid rock-fill material were performed before the beginning of construction. During the construction the properties of the available rock-fill changed from solid to soft materials. This gave rise to the necessity of adjusting the dam design of the downstream dam shoulder. Several times higher dam settlements as well as significant differential settlements between the up- and downstream dam shell were observed during construction and operation. Apart from this situation, the dam has been operated for nearly 20 years and the behavior of the water barrier has been very good.

关键词: embankment dam     bituminous concrete membrane     rock-fill material properties     deformation behavior    

Engineering the grain boundary: a promising strategy to configure NiCoPO/NiCoP nanowire arrays for ultra-stable

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第8期   页码 1259-1267 doi: 10.1007/s11705-021-2132-0

摘要: NiCoP4O12/NiCoP nanorod-like arrays with tunable grain boundary density and pores were synthesized by the processes composed of hydrothermal and pyrolysis, in which, the electron structure of Ni and Co atoms characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was contemporaneous inverse manipulated. The optimized NiCoP4O12/NiCoP arrays have a high specific capacitance of 507.8 μAh∙cm–2 at 1 mA∙cm–2, and good rate ability of 64.7% retention at 30-folds increased current density. Importantly, an ultra-stable ability, 88.5% of retention after 10000 cycles, was achieved in an asymmetric cell assembled of the NiCoP4O12/NiCoP arrays with activated carbon. In addition, the energy and power densities of an asymmetric cell were higher than those of other work, demonstrating as-prepared NiCoP4O12/NiCoP arrays are promising electrodes for supercapacitors.

关键词: NiCo     array electrode     grain boundary     stability     supercapacitor    

Improving water use efficiency in grain production of winter wheat and summer maize in the North China

Xiying ZHANG,Wenli QIN,Juanna XIE

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2016年 第3卷 第1期   页码 25-33 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2016090

摘要: Reducing irrigation water use by improving water use efficiency (WUE) in grain production is critical for the development of sustainable agriculture in the North China Plain (NCP). This article summarizes the research progresses in WUE improvement carried out at the Luancheng station located in the Northern part of NCP for the past three decades. Progresses in four aspects of yield and WUE improvement are presented, including yield and WUE improvement associated with cultivar selection, irrigation management for improving yield and WUE under limited water supply, managing root system for efficient soil water use and reducing soil evaporation by straw mulch. The results showed that annual average increase of 0.014 kg·m for winter wheat and 0.02 kg·m in WUE were observed for the past three decades, and this increase was largely associated with the improvement in harvest index related to cultivar renewal and an increase in chemical fertilizer use and soil fertility. The results also indicated that deficit irrigation for winter wheat could significantly reduce the irrigation water use, whereas the seasonal yield showed a smaller reduction rate and WUE was significantly improved. Straw mulching of summer maize using the straw from winter wheat could reduce seasonal soil evaporation by 30–40 mm. With new cultivars and improved management practices it was possible to further increase grain production without much increase in water use. Future strategies to further improve WUE are also discussed.

关键词: harvest index     cultivar selection     deficit irrigation     root water uptake     straw mulching    

Spatiotemporal variation in water footprint of grain production in China

Pute WU,Yubao WANG,Xining ZHAO,Shikun SUN,Jiming JIN

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2015年 第2卷 第2期   页码 186-193 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2015060

摘要: Water shortage has become a significant constraint to grain production in China. A more holistic approach is needed to understand the links between grain production and water consumption. Water footprint provides a framework to assess water utilization in agriculture production. This paper analyzes the spatiotemporal variation in water footprint of grain production (WFGP) in China from 1951 to 2010. The results show that, jointly motivated by the improvement of agricultural production and water use efficiency, WFGP in all areas showed a decreasing trend. National average WFGP has decreased from 3.38 to 1.31 m ·kg . Due to regional differences in agricultural production and water use efficiency, spatial distribution of WFGP varies significantly and its pattern has changed through time. Moreover, WFGP may show significant differences within areas of similar climatic conditions and agricultural practices, indicating that there is a strong need to improve the management of water use technology. Statistical analysis revealed that regional differences in grain yield are the main cause for variations in spatiotemporal WFGP. However, the scope for further increases in grain yield is limited, and thus, the future goal of reducing WFGP is to decrease the water use per unit area.

关键词: water footprint     grain production     grain secu- rity     water scarcity     water-saving    

Genetic improvement of wheat grain quality at CIMMYT

Carlos GUZMÁN, Karim AMMAR, Velu GOVINDAN, Ravi SINGH

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第6卷 第3期   页码 265-272 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2019260

摘要:

The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) is the global leader in publicly-funded maize and wheat research and in farming systems based on these crops. CIMMYT leads the Global Wheat Program (GWP), which includes some of the largest wheat breeding programs in the world. The GWP has been successful in developing wheat germplasm that is used extensively worldwide. Wheat quality improvement is a central component of all the breeding efforts at CIMMYT and the Wheat Chemistry and Quality Laboratory represents an integral part of the breeding programs. Wheat quality is addressed at CIMMYT over the full range of this very wide and variable concept with milling, processing, end-use and nutritional quality targeted. Wheat progenitors and advanced lines developed by the breeders are assessed for diverse quality attributes, with the aim of identifying those that fulfill the requirements in terms of milling, processing, end-use and nutritional quality in different target regions. Significant research is conducted to make more efficient the integration of wheat quality traits in the breeding programs. The main topics being addressed are (1) methodologies to analyze grain quality traits, (2) genetic control and environmental effects on quality traits, (3) characterization of genetic resources for quality improvement, and (4) diversifying grain properties for novel uses.

关键词: biofortification     breeding     grain quality     wheat    

Transcriptome analysis of wheat grain using RNA-Seq

Liu WEI,Zhihui WU,Yufeng ZHANG,Dandan GUO,Yuzhou XU,Weixia CHEN,Haiying ZHOU,Mingshan YOU,Baoyun LI

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第1卷 第3期   页码 214-222 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2014024

摘要: With the increase in consumer demand, wheat grain quality improvement has become a focus in China and worldwide. Transcriptome analysis is a powerful approach to research grain traits and elucidate their genetic regulation. In this study, two cDNA libraries from the developing grain and leaf-stem components of bread wheat cultivar, Nongda211, were sequenced using Roche/454 technology. There were 1061274 and 1516564 clean reads generated from grain and leaf-stem, respectively. A total of 61393 high-quality unigenes were obtained with an average length of 1456 bp after assembly. The analysis of the 61393 unigenes involved in the biological processes of the grain showed that there were 7355 differentially expressed genes upregulated in the grain library. Gene ontology enrichment and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis showed that many transcription products and transcription factors associated with carbohydrate and protein metabolism were abundantly expressed in the grain. These results contribute to excavate genes associated with wheat quality and further study how they interact.

关键词: transcriptome analysis     wheat grain     differentially expressed genes     enrichment analysis    

高心墙堆石坝坝面碾压施工仿真理论与应用

钟登华,赵晨生,张平

《中国工程科学》 2011年 第13卷 第12期   页码 28-32

摘要:

在对高心墙堆石坝坝面碾压系统进行全面分析的基础上,提出了以填筑单元为仿真单位的碾压施工仿真理论,建立了能够反映碾压过程中不确定因素的精细化仿真模型,保证仿真贴近实际施工。研究成果在糯扎渡心墙堆石坝工程的填筑单元中得到了应用,验证了方法的可靠性,对于大坝现场碾压施工具有指导意义,为工程进度控制和管理提供了技术支持。

关键词: 高心墙堆石坝     坝面碾压     施工仿真    

Analysis on damage causes of built-in corridor in core rock-fill dam on thick overburden: A case study

Jia’ao YU; Zhenzhong SHEN; Zhangxin HUANG

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第6期   页码 762-780 doi: 10.1007/s11709-022-0847-8

摘要: The stress state of the built-in corridor in core rock-fill dam on thick overburden is extremely complex, which may produce cracking and damage. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effect of thick overburden on the stress and deformation of the built-in corridor in a rock-fill dam, and ascertain the damage causes of the corridor. The rationality of the analysis method for corridor with similar structure is another focus. The approach is based on finite-element method and the calculation result accuracy is verified by the field monitoring data. The improved analysis method for corridors with similar structure is proposed by comparing various corridor load calculation methods and concrete constitutive models. Results demonstrate that the damage causes of the corridor are the deformability difference between the overburden and concrete and the special structural form. And the calculation model considering dam construction process, contact between concrete and surrounding soil, and concrete damage plasticity can reasonably reflect the mechanical behavior of the corridor. The research conclusions may have a reference significance for the analysis of tunnels similar to built-in corridors.

关键词: thick overburden     built-in corridor     stress     deformation     causes for damage     concrete damaged plasticity    

高心墙堆石坝填筑施工过程实时监控系统研发与应用

崔博,胡连兴,刘东海

《中国工程科学》 2011年 第13卷 第12期   页码 91-96

摘要:

文章针对高心墙堆石坝填筑施工特点,建立了过程控制指标体系,确定了过程监控方法,提出了解决方案,研制开发了具有实时性、高精度、自动化、全天候等特点的大坝填筑施工过程监控系统,实现土石料上坝运输过程、坝面填筑碾压过程的实时监控。该系统应用于亚洲第一高土石坝——糯扎渡心墙堆石坝的施工现场,建立了以监控系统为核心的施工过程控制体系,对大坝填筑施工的主要环节实现精细化的全天候实时监控,有效地控制了大坝填筑施工参数,提高了施工过程的质量控制水平与效率。

关键词: 高心墙堆石坝     填筑施工过程     实时监控     上坝运输     填筑碾压     研发与应用    

Characterization of grain cadmium concentration in indica hybrid rice

Kai WANG, Qunfeng ZHOU, Tianze YAN, Shilong XU, Longyi ZHAO, Weicheng WANG, Zhigang JIN, Peng QIN, Chenjian FU, Liangbi CHEN, Yuanzhu YANG

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2020年 第7卷 第4期   页码 523-529 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2019281

摘要:

As a consequence of contamination of soil with heavy metals, cadmium accumulation in grain is of great concern worldwide, but especially in southern China. It is important to evaluate the Cd accumulation potential of grain before or when examining and approving new cultivars. An evaluation method and criteria for verifying Cd accumulation potential in rice are proposed, and the Cd accumulation potential of 56 mid-season hybrids collected from the provincial cultivar trials in 2016 were investigated. Genotype, environment and their interactions strongly affected the variation in grain Cd accumulation. Two hybrids were identified as slightly Cd accumulating. Hybrids with slight Cd accumulation potential would be suitable for safe grain production on polluted land (total Cd under 2.0 mg·kg ) in Hunan Province (China) and should be considered for new cultivar evaluation and approval. This evaluation method and criterion could be applied for certifying Cd accumulation potential of rice cultivars.

关键词: accumulation     cadmium     hybrid     methodology     rice    

Mechanical properties of rock materials with related to mineralogical characteristics and grain size

Wenjuan SUN, Linbing WANG, Yaqiong WANG

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第11卷 第3期   页码 322-328 doi: 10.1007/s11709-017-0387-9

摘要: Mechanical properties of rock materials are related to textural characteristics. The relationships between mechanical properties and textural characteristics have been extensively investigated for differently types of rocks through experimental tests. Based on the experimental test data, single- and multiple- variant regression analyses are conducted among mechanical properties and textural characteristics. Textural characteristics of rock materials are influenced by the following factors: mineral composition, size, shape, and spatial distribution of mineral grains, porosity, and inherent microcracks. This study focuses on the first two: mineral composition and grain size. ? This study comprehensively summarizes the regression equations between mechanical properties and mineral content and the regression equations between mechanical properties and grain size. Further research directions are suggested at the end of this study.

关键词: Mechanical properties     rock material     texture     mineral characteristics    

移动式颗粒床除尘器的设计研究

吕保和

《中国工程科学》 2007年 第9卷 第10期   页码 45-48

摘要:

分析了移动式颗粒床除尘器的特点,并与传统除尘器进行了比较。结合理论计算与实际运行试验,提出了移动式颗粒床除尘器主要结构参数及主要性能参数的设计计算方法,证明了该方法具有较好的实际应用价值。

关键词: 移动式颗粒床     除尘器     结构参数     性能参数    

A solar assisted heat pump drying system for grain in-store drying

Haifeng LI, Yanjun DAI, Jianguo DAI, Xibo WANG, Lei WEI,

《能源前沿(英文)》 2010年 第4卷 第3期   页码 386-391 doi: 10.1007/s11708-010-0003-3

摘要: For grain in-store drying, a solar assisted drying process has been developed, which consists of a set including a solar-assisted heat pump, a ventilation system, a grain stirrer, etc. In this way, low power consumption, short cycle time and water content uniformity can be achieved in comparison with the conventional method. A solar-assisted heat pump drying system has been designed and manufactured for a practical granary, and the energy consumption performance of the unit is analyzed. The analysis result shows that the solar fraction of the unit is higher than 20%, the coefficient of performance about system (COP) is 5.19, and the specific moisture extraction rate (SMER) can reach 3.05 kg/kWh.

关键词: solar energy     heat pump     airflow     in-store drying    

Molecular dynamics modeling of a single diamond abrasive grain in grinding

Angelos P. MARKOPOULOS,Ioannis K. SAVVOPOULOS,Nikolaos E. KARKALOS,Dimitrios E. MANOLAKOS

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2015年 第10卷 第2期   页码 168-175 doi: 10.1007/s11465-015-0337-y

摘要:

In this paper the nano-metric simulation of grinding of copper with diamond abrasive grains, using the molecular dynamics (MD) method, is considered. An MD model of nano-scale grinding, where a single diamond abrasive grain performs cutting of a copper workpiece, is presented. The Morse potential function is used to simulate the interactions between the atoms involved in the procedure. In the proposed model, the abrasive grain follows a curved path with decreasing depth of cut within the workpiece to simulate the actual material removal process. Three different initial depths of cut, namely 4 ?, 8 ? and 12 ?, are tested, and the influence of the depth of cut on chip formation, cutting forces and workpiece temperatures are thoroughly investigated. The simulation results indicate that with the increase of the initial depth of cut, average cutting forces also increase and therefore the temperatures on the machined surface and within the workpiece increase as well. Furthermore, the effects of the different values of the simulation variables on the chip formation mechanism are studied and discussed. With the appropriate modifications, the proposed model can be used for the simulation of various nano-machining processes and operations, in which continuum mechanics cannot be applied or experimental techniques are subjected to limitations.

关键词: molecular dynamics     abrasive process     chip formation     cutting force     temperature    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Approaches to achieve high grain yield and high resource use efficiency in rice

Jianchang YANG

期刊论文

Influence of soft rock-fill material as dam embankment with central bituminous concrete membrane

Peter TSCHERNUTTER

期刊论文

Engineering the grain boundary: a promising strategy to configure NiCoPO/NiCoP nanowire arrays for ultra-stable

期刊论文

Improving water use efficiency in grain production of winter wheat and summer maize in the North China

Xiying ZHANG,Wenli QIN,Juanna XIE

期刊论文

Spatiotemporal variation in water footprint of grain production in China

Pute WU,Yubao WANG,Xining ZHAO,Shikun SUN,Jiming JIN

期刊论文

Genetic improvement of wheat grain quality at CIMMYT

Carlos GUZMÁN, Karim AMMAR, Velu GOVINDAN, Ravi SINGH

期刊论文

Transcriptome analysis of wheat grain using RNA-Seq

Liu WEI,Zhihui WU,Yufeng ZHANG,Dandan GUO,Yuzhou XU,Weixia CHEN,Haiying ZHOU,Mingshan YOU,Baoyun LI

期刊论文

高心墙堆石坝坝面碾压施工仿真理论与应用

钟登华,赵晨生,张平

期刊论文

Analysis on damage causes of built-in corridor in core rock-fill dam on thick overburden: A case study

Jia’ao YU; Zhenzhong SHEN; Zhangxin HUANG

期刊论文

高心墙堆石坝填筑施工过程实时监控系统研发与应用

崔博,胡连兴,刘东海

期刊论文

Characterization of grain cadmium concentration in indica hybrid rice

Kai WANG, Qunfeng ZHOU, Tianze YAN, Shilong XU, Longyi ZHAO, Weicheng WANG, Zhigang JIN, Peng QIN, Chenjian FU, Liangbi CHEN, Yuanzhu YANG

期刊论文

Mechanical properties of rock materials with related to mineralogical characteristics and grain size

Wenjuan SUN, Linbing WANG, Yaqiong WANG

期刊论文

移动式颗粒床除尘器的设计研究

吕保和

期刊论文

A solar assisted heat pump drying system for grain in-store drying

Haifeng LI, Yanjun DAI, Jianguo DAI, Xibo WANG, Lei WEI,

期刊论文

Molecular dynamics modeling of a single diamond abrasive grain in grinding

Angelos P. MARKOPOULOS,Ioannis K. SAVVOPOULOS,Nikolaos E. KARKALOS,Dimitrios E. MANOLAKOS

期刊论文