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Gut microbiota and its implications in small bowel transplantation

null

《医学前沿(英文)》 2018年 第12卷 第3期   页码 239-248 doi: 10.1007/s11684-018-0617-0

摘要:

The gut microbiota is mainly composed of a diverse population of commensal bacterial species and plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, immune modulation and metabolism. The influence of the gut microbiota on solid organ transplantation has recently been recognized. In fact, several studies indicated that acute and chronic allograft rejection in small bowel transplantation (SBT) is closely associated with the alterations in microbial patterns in the gut. In this review, we focused on the recent findings regarding alterations in the microbiota following SBT and the potential roles of these alterations in the development of acute and chronic allograft rejection. We also reviewed important advances with respect to the interplays between the microbiota and host immune systems in SBT. Furthermore, we explored the potential of the gut microbiota as a microbial marker and/or therapeutic target for the predication and intervention of allograft rejection and chronic dysfunction. Given that current research on the gut microbiota has become increasingly sophisticated and comprehensive, large cohort studies employing metagenomic analysis and multivariate linkage should be designed for the characterization of host–microbe interaction and causality between microbiota alterations and clinical outcomes in SBT. The findings are expected to provide valuable insights into the role of gut microbiota in the development of allograft rejection and other transplant-related complications and introduce novel therapeutic targets and treatment approaches in clinical practice.

关键词: gut microbiota     small bowel transplantation     acute rejection     chronic rejection     mucosal immunity     biomarker     microbiota-targeted therapy    

Regulation of T cell immunity by cellular metabolism

null

《医学前沿(英文)》 2018年 第12卷 第4期   页码 463-472 doi: 10.1007/s11684-018-0668-2

摘要:

T cells are an important adaptive immune response arm that mediates cell-mediated immunity. T cell metabolism plays a central role in T cell activation, proliferation, differentiation, and effector function. Specific metabolic programs are tightly controlled to mediate T cell immune responses, and alterations in T cell metabolism may result in many immunological disorders. In this review, we will summarize the main T cell metabolic pathways and the important factors participating in T cell metabolic programming during T cell homeostasis, differentiation, and function.

关键词: T cell immunity     metabolic pathways     nutrient uptake     metabolic checkpoints    

Metabolism and immunity in breast cancer

Deyu Zhang, Xiaojie Xu, Qinong Ye

《医学前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第2期   页码 178-207 doi: 10.1007/s11684-020-0793-6

摘要: Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies that seriously threaten women’s health. In the process of the malignant transformation of breast cancer, metabolic reprogramming and immune evasion represent the two main fascinating characteristics of cancer and facilitate cancer cell proliferation. Breast cancer cells generate energy through increased glucose metabolism. Lipid metabolism contributes to biological signal pathways and forms cell membranes except energy generation. Amino acids act as basic protein units and metabolic regulators in supporting cell growth. For tumor-associated immunity, poor immunogenicity and heightened immunosuppression cause breast cancer cells to evade the host’s immune system. For the past few years, the complex mechanisms of metabolic reprogramming and immune evasion are deeply investigated, and the genes involved in these processes are used as clinical therapeutic targets for breast cancer. Here, we review the recent findings related to abnormal metabolism and immune characteristics, regulatory mechanisms, their links, and relevant therapeutic strategies.

关键词: breast cancer     metabolism     immunity     cancer stem cells    

Rhizosphere immunity: targeting the underground for sustainable plant health management

Zhong WEI, Ville-Petri FRIMAN, Thomas POMMIER, Stefan GEISEN, Alexandre JOUSSET, Qirong SHEN

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2020年 第7卷 第3期   页码 317-328 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2020346

摘要:

Managing plant health is a great challenge for modern food production and is further complicated by the lack of common ground between the many disciplines involved in disease control. Here we present the concept of rhizosphere immunity, in which plant health is considered as an ecosystem level property emerging from networks of interactions between plants, microbiota and the surrounding soil matrix. These interactions can potentially extend the innate plant immune system to a point where the rhizosphere immunity can fulfil all four core functions of a full immune system: pathogen prevention, recognition, response and homeostasis. We suggest that considering plant health from a meta-organism perspective will help in developing multidisciplinary pathogen management strategies that focus on steering the whole plant-microbe-soil networks instead of individual components. This might be achieved by bringing together the latest discoveries in phytopathology, microbiome research, soil science and agronomy to pave the way toward more sustainable and productive agriculture.

关键词: rhizosphere     soil microbiome     plant immunity     microbial ecology     plant health     soilborne pathogens    

Toll-like receptors in innate immunity and infectious diseases

Min-Hao WU, Ping ZHANG, Xi HUANG,

《医学前沿(英文)》 2010年 第4卷 第4期   页码 385-393 doi: 10.1007/s11684-010-0600-x

摘要: The protective ability of host defense system is largely dependent on germ-line encoded pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). These PRRs respond to a variety of exogenous pathogens or endogenous danger signals, by recognizing some highly conserved structures such as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and danger/damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). The most studied PRRs are Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Activation of TLRs triggers production of inflammatory cytokines and type I interferons (IFNs) via myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88)-dependent or-independent signaling respectively, thereby modulating innate and adaptive immunity, as well as inflammatory responses. This review introduces the classification, structure, and specific ligands of TLRs, and focuses on their signal pathways and biological activities, as well as clinical relevance. These studies of TLRs in the innate immune system have implications for the prevention and treatment of a variety of infectious diseases, including tuberculosis (TB), microbial keratitis, and hepatitis B and C.

关键词: Toll-like receptors     innate immunity     infectious disease     inflammation    

Immunogenicity and protective immunity against otitis media caused by pneumococcus in mice of Hib conjugate

null

《医学前沿(英文)》 2016年 第10卷 第4期   页码 490-498 doi: 10.1007/s11684-016-0470-y

摘要:

This study evaluated the immunogenicity and protective immunity of a Hemophilus influenzae b (Hib) polysaccharide conjugate vaccine with the pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA) protein carrier in young mice. The Hib polysaccharide was conjugated with the rPsaA protein carrier, which was produced using recombinant DNA technology. A total of 15 young mice aged 3 weeks to 5 weeks were immunized with the conjugate vaccine, and another 15 young mice of the same age were immunized with the licensed Hib-tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine. Furthermore, the third group of 15 young mice was inoculated with phosphate buffer saline as control. The immunized mice were inoculated with pneumococcus in the middle ear. Results showed that IgG antibody responses against both the PsaA protein and Hib polysaccharide were observed in the Hib-PsaA group. However, no statistical difference was observed in the titer of IgG against the Hib polysaccharide between Hib-PsaA and Hib-TT groups. The elimination rate of pneumococcus and the inflammation of the middle ear showed the effectiveness of protective immunity against otitis media caused by pneumococcus. Our results suggest that the Hib polysaccharide can be successfully conjugated with rPsaA via amide condensation. This new Hib-PsaA conjugate vaccine can induce both anti-PsaA and anti-Hib immune responses in young mice and elicit effective protection against acute otitis media caused by pneumococcus.

关键词: conjugate vaccine     pneumococcal surface adhesin A     Hemophilus influenzae b     immunogenicity     otitis media    

Antitumor immunity of human SART3 gene vaccine against mouse tumor

HE Yu, YANG Shuhua, LIU Yong, LI Tao

《医学前沿(英文)》 2008年 第2卷 第1期   页码 51-57 doi: 10.1007/s11684-008-0010-5

摘要: To determine whether squamous cell carcinoma antigen recognized by human T cell 3 (SART3) gene can induce antitumor immunity against tumor cells which express the gene, we constructed mouse tumor cells expressing human SART3 (LM8-SART3) and carried out experiments . After subcutaneous injection with SART3 gene vaccine, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity was measured using Cell Counting Kit-8. As for the part, C3H mice were divided into several groups. One group was challenged with tumor cells after immunity. Another group was treated with the vaccine after tumor implantation. It was found that human SART3 DNA vaccine can elicit a specific CTL reaction from the mouse splenocytes. After vaccination, tumor occurrence and tumor growth speed was reduced. The vaccine also shows activity in tumor treatment. We conclude that the human SART3 DNA vaccine can induce antitumor ability against tumor cells expressing human SART3 (LM8-SART3) which may provide new possibilities in antitumor therapy.

关键词: antitumor therapy     occurrence     implantation     DNA vaccine     SART3 DNA    

HEMIPTERAN-TRANSMITTED PLANT VIRUSES: RESEARCH PROGRESS AND CONTROL STRATEGIES

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第9卷 第1期   页码 98-109 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2021389

摘要:

About 80% of plant viruses are transmitted by specific insect vectors, especially hemipterans with piercing-sucking mouthparts. Many virus-transmitting insects are also important crop pests that cause considerable losses in crop production. This review summarizes the latest research findings on the interactions between plant viruses and insect vectors and analyzes the key factors affecting insect transmission of plant viruses from the perspectives of insect immunity, insect feeding, and insect symbiotic microorganisms. Additionally, by referring to the latest applications for blocking the transmission of animal viruses, potential control strategies to prevent the transmission of insect-vectored plant viruses using RNAi technology, gene editing technology, and CRISPR/Cas9+ gene-driven technology are discussed.

 

关键词: control strategies / feeding / immunity / insect vector / microorganism / plant virus    

RNA m6A modification and its function in diseases

null

《医学前沿(英文)》 2018年 第12卷 第4期   页码 481-489 doi: 10.1007/s11684-018-0654-8

摘要:

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most common post-transcriptional RNA modification throughout the transcriptome, affecting fundamental aspects of RNA metabolism. m6A modification could be installed by m6A “writers” composed of core catalytic components (METTL3/METTL14/WTAP) and newly defined regulators and removed by m6A “erasers” (FTO and ALKBH5). The function of m6A is executed by m6A “readers” that bind to m6A directly (YTH domain-containing proteins, eIF3 and IGF2BPs) or indirectly (HNRNPA2B1). In the past few years, advances in m6A modulators (“writers,” “erasers,” and “readers”) have remarkably renewed our understanding of the function and regulation of m6A in different cells under normal or disease conditions. However, the mechanism and the regulatory network of m6A are still largely unknown. Moreover, investigations of the m6A physiological roles in human diseases are limited. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in m6A research and highlight the functional relevance and importance of m6A modification in in vitro cell lines, in physiological contexts, and in cancers.

关键词: RNA modification     m6A     immunity     cancer     epigenetics    

中医论治艾滋病

王文奎

《中国工程科学》 2004年 第6卷 第1期   页码 44-47

摘要:

严重的细胞免疫功能缺陷是艾滋病发生的内因,获得性的病毒是外因,外因只有通过内因才能致病。而细胞免疫缺陷的根本,全在于生养细胞的条件与环境。一切条件全靠人体的脏腑功能运动来创造,只有宏观而整体的调控人体的脏腑功能运动,才能化生人体所需要的一切物质。有了物质才能化生精神,有了物质和精神才能保障细胞的免疫功能,才能战胜并消灭各种病毒,才能恢复人体的身心健康,增强人体的免疫功能,保障人体的生命运动正常进行。

关键词: 中医论治     辨证     艾滋病    

Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in trophoblasts and deciduas in early medical abortion

Geqing XIA, Chaoying WU

《医学前沿(英文)》 2009年 第3卷 第2期   页码 216-219 doi: 10.1007/s11684-009-0028-3

摘要: The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in trophoblasts and deciduas in early medical abortion, and study the relationship of medical abortion through mifepristone and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in early pregnancy. Expression of iNOS in trophoblasts and deciduas was detected by both hybridization and immunohistochemical assay in 40 patients (experimental group); the positive expression of iNOS was represented by number density (N/S) and positive unit (Pu) using computer color magic image analysis system (CMIAS). All results were compared with that obtained from vacuum aspiration. In the experimental group, N/S and Pu in trophoblasts were 0.120 ± 0.010 and 15.3 ± 2.6, respectively, while in the control group, they were 0.021 ± 0.003 and 3.1 ± 0.5, respectively, and there were significant differences between the two groups. By immunohistochemical assay, N/S and Pu were 0.090 ± 0.010, 10.24 ± 1.55 0.016 ± 0.002, 1.26 ± 0.33 in the trophoblasts of the two groups; there were also significant differences between the two groups. There were lower iNOS expressions in deciduas by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical assay, and the difference between the two groups was not significant.It was concluded that mifepristone induced medical abortion through the expression of iNOS in trophoblasts but not in deciduas.

关键词: mifepristone     inducible nitric oxide synthase     early pregnancy     placental immunity    

Critical roles of chemokines and cytokines in antiviral innate immune responses during rabies virus infection

Ying HUANG, Clement Wesley GNANADURAI, Zhenfang FU

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第4卷 第3期   页码 260-267 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2016116

摘要: The innate immune response is the first line of defense against viral invasion and pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines have a critical function in the innate immune responses against virus infections. The ability of a rabies virus (RABV) to induce the expression of chemokines and cytokines can lead to viral clearance from the central nervous system (CNS), whereas the ability to evade such expression and activation contributes to virulence and pathogenicity. In this review, the crucial contribution of chemokines/cytokines to clearing RABV from the CNS is discussed, including recruiting leukocytes into the CNS, enhancement of blood brain barrier permeability and activation of various immune cells that are essential for viral clearance. In addition, recombinant RABV expressing cytokines and chemokines can induce elevated innate and adaptive immune responses which result in clearing an established wild-type RABV infection in the CNS.

关键词: antiviral     blood brain barrier     chemokines and cytokines     innate immunity     rabies virus    

Systems understanding of plant–pathogen interactions through genome-wide protein–protein interaction networks

Hong LI,Ziding ZHANG

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2016年 第3卷 第2期   页码 102-112 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2016100

摘要: Plants are frequently affected by pathogen infections. To effectively defend against such infections, two major modes of innate immunity have evolved in plants; pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity and effector-triggered immunity. Although the molecular components as well as the corresponding pathways involved in these two processes have been identified, many aspects of the molecular mechanisms of the plant immune system remain elusive. Recently, the rapid development of omics techniques (e.g., genomics, proteomics and transcriptomics) has provided a great opportunity to explore plant–pathogen interactions from a systems perspective and studies on protein–protein interactions (PPIs) between plants and pathogens have been carried out and characterized at the network level. In this review, we introduce experimental and computational identification methods of PPIs, popular PPI network analysis approaches, and existing bioinformatics resources/tools related to PPIs. Then, we focus on reviewing the progress in genome-wide PPI networks related to plant–pathogen interactions, including pathogen-centric PPI networks, plant-centric PPI networks and interspecies PPI networks between plants and pathogens. We anticipate genome-wide PPI network analysis will provide a clearer understanding of plant–pathogen interactions and will offer some new opportunities for crop protection and improvement.

关键词: plant–pathogen interactions     systems biology     omics     plant immunity     protein–protein interaction     network    

肝内区域免疫对肝移植后肿瘤复发的影响 Review

刘江, 卢宠茂, 万钧

《工程(英文)》 2022年 第10卷 第3期   页码 57-64 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2021.11.012

摘要:

肝脏恶性肿瘤是肝移植的一个主要适应症,但是肝移植后肿瘤复发却是影响受体长期生存的一个严峻临床挑战。肿瘤生物学特征、分期和移植后的免疫抑制状态一直被认为是肝癌复发的危险因素。而越来越多的证据表明,肝脏缺血再灌注(IR)对同种异体移植物的损伤则为肝移植后的肿瘤细胞侵袭性、转移性
提供了有利的免疫微环境。在活体肝移植中,边缘移植物(如小体积或脂肪移植物)的严重损伤与较低的无复发生存率之间的相关性,证实了IR 损伤与肿瘤复发之间的关联。IR 可引起肝内免疫微环境重构,包括恶化移植物损伤的促炎反应和加快组织修复的抗炎反应。然而,肝内区域免疫对移植后肿瘤复发的作
用尚不清晰。本文详述了IR 损伤诱导的肝内体液微环境和调节性区域免疫微环境,以及它们如何影响肝移植后肿瘤复发的最新研究进展。综合理解移植后肝内区域免疫,将为移植后肿瘤复发提供精准诊断、治疗和预后预测的新策略。

关键词: 肝移植     肝癌     复发     免疫学    

纳米复合肺靶向递送突破Ad5预存免疫屏障 Article

杨益隆, 吴诗坡, 王玉东, 邵方泽, 吕鹏, 李汭桦, 赵晓帆, 张军, 张晓鹏, 李建民, 侯利华, 徐俊杰, 陈薇

《工程(英文)》 2023年 第27卷 第8期   页码 127-139 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2022.12.007

摘要:

重组5型腺病毒载体(Ad5)已成功用于埃博拉病毒、新型肺炎冠状病毒等新发突发传染病防控,然而针对病毒载体的预存免疫会对疫苗的免疫原性造成一定影响。维持重组Ad5型疫苗的高免疫原性并减少预存免疫效应,已成为该领域的重要研究方向。基于生物相容性纳米颗粒,本研究尝试通过调控Ad5与宿主的相互作用应对上述挑战。制备出的正电人血清白蛋白纳米颗粒[(+)HSAnp]能够与Ad5自组装形成复合物,针对柯萨奇病毒-腺病毒受体(CAR)阳性和阴性细胞均能显著提高靶基因表达量。在小鼠模型中,滴鼻吸入Ad5/(+)HSAnp复合物实现了高效(高达227倍)和长期(长达60天)的肺靶向靶基因表达,且增强效应可通过表面电位和给药剂量进行调控。经纳米复合的5型腺病毒载体埃博拉疫苗和新冠疫苗,在Ad5预存免疫模型中显著增强了体液免疫和黏膜免疫应答。本研究表明通过纳米颗粒调控病毒载体的聚集状态和表面电位,能够用于设计增强型的疫苗和基因治疗载体。


 

关键词: 5型腺病毒     疫苗     预存免疫     纳米颗粒     靶基因表达    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Gut microbiota and its implications in small bowel transplantation

null

期刊论文

Regulation of T cell immunity by cellular metabolism

null

期刊论文

Metabolism and immunity in breast cancer

Deyu Zhang, Xiaojie Xu, Qinong Ye

期刊论文

Rhizosphere immunity: targeting the underground for sustainable plant health management

Zhong WEI, Ville-Petri FRIMAN, Thomas POMMIER, Stefan GEISEN, Alexandre JOUSSET, Qirong SHEN

期刊论文

Toll-like receptors in innate immunity and infectious diseases

Min-Hao WU, Ping ZHANG, Xi HUANG,

期刊论文

Immunogenicity and protective immunity against otitis media caused by pneumococcus in mice of Hib conjugate

null

期刊论文

Antitumor immunity of human SART3 gene vaccine against mouse tumor

HE Yu, YANG Shuhua, LIU Yong, LI Tao

期刊论文

HEMIPTERAN-TRANSMITTED PLANT VIRUSES: RESEARCH PROGRESS AND CONTROL STRATEGIES

期刊论文

RNA m6A modification and its function in diseases

null

期刊论文

中医论治艾滋病

王文奎

期刊论文

Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in trophoblasts and deciduas in early medical abortion

Geqing XIA, Chaoying WU

期刊论文

Critical roles of chemokines and cytokines in antiviral innate immune responses during rabies virus infection

Ying HUANG, Clement Wesley GNANADURAI, Zhenfang FU

期刊论文

Systems understanding of plant–pathogen interactions through genome-wide protein–protein interaction networks

Hong LI,Ziding ZHANG

期刊论文

肝内区域免疫对肝移植后肿瘤复发的影响

刘江, 卢宠茂, 万钧

期刊论文

纳米复合肺靶向递送突破Ad5预存免疫屏障

杨益隆, 吴诗坡, 王玉东, 邵方泽, 吕鹏, 李汭桦, 赵晓帆, 张军, 张晓鹏, 李建民, 侯利华, 徐俊杰, 陈薇

期刊论文