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Distribution of background equivalent static wind load on high-rise buildings

Jianguo ZHANG , Ming GU ,

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2009年 第3卷 第3期   页码 241-248 doi: 10.1007/s11709-009-0036-z

摘要: In this paper, the along-wind and cross-wind fluctuating load distributions along the height of high-rise buildings and their correlations are obtained through simultaneous pressure measurements in a wind tunnel. Some typical methods proposed in some relative literatures, i.e., load-response correlation (LRC), and quasi-mean load (QML) and gust load envelope (GLE) methods, are verified in terms of their accuracy in describing the background equivalent static wind load distribution on high-rise buildings. Based on the results, formulae of the distribution of background equivalent static load on high-rise buildings with typical shapes are put forward. It is shown that these formulae are of high accuracy and practical use.

关键词: high-rise buildings     along-wind     cross-wind     background equivalent static wind load     close formulae    

State identification of home appliance with transient features in residential buildings

《能源前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第1期   页码 130-143 doi: 10.1007/s11708-022-0822-z

摘要: Nonintrusive load monitoring (NILM) is crucial for extracting patterns of electricity consumption of household appliance that can guide users’ behavior in using electricity while their privacy is respected. This study proposes an online method based on the transient behavior of individual appliances as well as system steady-state characteristics to estimate the operating states of the appliances. It determines the number of states for each appliance using the density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) method and models the transition relationship among different states. The states of the working appliances are identified from aggregated power signals using the Kalman filtering method in the factorial hidden Markov model (FHMM). Thereafter, the identified states are confirmed by the verification of system states, which are the combination of the working states of individual appliances. The verification step involves comparing the total measured power consumption with the total estimated power consumption. The use of transient features can achieve fast state inference and it is suitable for online load disaggregation. The proposed method was tested on a high-resolution data set such as Labeled hIgh-Frequency daTaset for Electricity Disaggregation (LIFTED) and it outperformed other related methods in the literature.

关键词: nonintrusive load monitoring (NILM)     load disaggregation     online load disaggregation     Kalman filtering     factorial hidden Markov model (FHMM)     Labeled hIgh-Frequency daTaset for Electricity Disaggregation (LIFTED)    

A methodology for regulating fuel stratification and improving fuel economy of GCI mode via double main-injection strategy

《能源前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第5期   页码 678-691 doi: 10.1007/s11708-022-0859-z

摘要: Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) combustion faces problems such as high maximum pressure rise rate (MPRR) and combustion deterioration at high loads. This paper aims to improve the engine performance of the GCI mode by regulating concentration stratification and promoting fuel-gas mixing by utilizing the double main-injection (DMI) strategy. Two direct injectors simultaneously injected gasoline with an octane number of 82.7 to investigate the energy ratio between the two main-injection and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on combustion and emissions. High-load experiments were conducted using the DMI strategy and compared with the single main-injection (SMI) strategy and conventional diesel combustion. The results indicate that the DMI strategy have a great potential to reduce the MPRR and improve the fuel economy of the GCI mode. At a 10 bar indicated mean effective pressure, increasing the main-injection-2 ratio (Rm-2) shortens the injection duration and increases the mean mixing time. Optimized Rm-2 could moderate the trade-off between the MPRR and the indicated specific fuel consumption with both reductions. An appropriate EGR should be adopted considering combustion and emissions. The DMI strategy achieves a highly efficient and stable combustion at high loads, with an indicated thermal efficiency (ITE) greater than 48%, CO and THC emissions at low levels, and MPRR within a reasonable range. Compared with the SMI strategy, the maximum improvement of the ITE is 1.5%, and the maximum reduction of MPRR is 1.5 bar/°CA.

关键词: gasoline compression ignition     injection strategy     fuel stratification     high efficiency     high load    

An approach for evaluating fire resistance of high strength Q460 steel columns

Wei-Yong WANG, Guo-Qiang LI, Bao-lin YU

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第8卷 第1期   页码 26-35 doi: 10.1007/s11709-014-0239-9

摘要: To develop a methodology for evaluating fire resistance of high strength Q460 steel columns, the load bearing capacity of high strength Q460 steel columns is investigated. The current approach of evaluating load bearing capacity of mild steel columns at room temperature is extended to high strength Q460 steel columns with due consideration to high temperature properties of high strength Q460 steel. The critical temperature of high strength Q460 steel column is presented and compared with mild steel columns. The proposed approach was validated by comparing the predicted load capacity with that evaluated through finite element analysis and test results. In addition, parametric studies were carried out by employing the proposed approach to study the effect of residual stress and geometrical imperfections. Results from parametric studies show that, only for a long column (slenderness higher than 75), the magnitude and distribution mode of residual stress have little influence on ultimate load bearing capacity of high strength Q460 steel columns, but the geometrical imperfections have significant influence on any columns. At a certain slenderness ratio, the stability factor first decreases and then increases with temperature rise.

关键词: high strength Q460 steel     load bearing capacity     temperature    

Estimation of composite load model with aggregate induction motor dynamic load for an isolated hybrid

Nitin Kumar SAXENA,Ashwani Kumar SHARMA

《能源前沿(英文)》 2015年 第9卷 第4期   页码 472-485 doi: 10.1007/s11708-015-0373-7

摘要: It is well recognized that the voltage stability of a power system is affected by the load model and hence, to effectively analyze the reactive power compensation of an isolated hybrid wind-diesel based power system, the loads need to be considered along with the generators in a transient analysis. This paper gives a detailed mathematical modeling to compute the reactive power response with small voltage perturbation for composite load. The composite load is a combination of the static and dynamic load model. To develop this composite load model, the exponential load is used as a static load model and induction motors (IMs) are used as a dynamic load model. To analyze the dynamics of IM load, the fifth, third and first order model of IM are formulated and compared using differential equations solver in Matlab coding. Since the decentralized areas have many small consumers which may consist large numbers of IMs of small rating, it is not realistic to model either a single large rating unit or all small rating IMs together that are placed in the system. In place of using a single large rating IM, a group of motors are considered and then the aggregate model of IM is developed using the law of energy conservation. This aggregate model is used as a dynamic load model. For different simulation studies, especially in the area of voltage stability with reactive power compensation of an isolated hybrid power system, the transfer function of the composite load is required. The transfer function of the composite load is derived in this paper by successive derivation for the exponential model of static load and for the fifth and third order IM dynamic load model using state space model.

关键词: isolated hybrid power system (IHPS)     composite load model     static load     dynamic load     induction motor load model     aggregate load    

基于惯性能时空最优分布的高加速轻载机构精密定位方法 Article

陈新,白有盾,杨志军,高健,陈贡发

《工程(英文)》 2015年 第1卷 第3期   页码 391-398 doi: 10.15302/J-ENG-2015063

摘要:

高速运动精密定位是微电子封装设备中高加速轻载执行机构的基本运动需求。本文推导了高加速机构瞬态非线性动力学响应方程,揭示了刚度、频率、阻尼 (与材料空间布局相关) 和驱动频率 (与运动规划相关) 是主要影响因素。据此,在满足高加速机构精密定位的条件下,笔者提出了一种基于最优非线性动力学响应的结构优化和速度规划新方法。在结构优化中,首先分析了目前流行的基于等效静态载荷的柔性多体动力学优化方法未充分考虑惯性载荷的不足,然后提出了基于等效模态的柔性多体动力学最优动态响应优化新方法;在速度规划上,针对传统的几何光滑方法不能反映系统动态特性的缺陷,提出了基于变边界条件非线性动力学响应优化的速度规划新方法。将所提方法应用到高速固晶焊头的优化设计中,通过结构优化,降低振幅超过20%,再经非对称变加速规划,缩短定位时间超过40%。本文提出的方法为微电子封装类装备等高加速轻载机构精密定位的实现提供了有效的理论支撑和解决途径。

关键词: 高加速轻载机构     精密定位     时空分布     惯性能     等效静态载荷方法     速度规划    

高速列车转向架技术研究

赵明花,梁树林,宋春元

《中国工程科学》 2015年 第17卷 第4期   页码 53-62

摘要:

高速铁路运营对转向架技术提出了更高要求,为能设计出性能更优越的动车组转向架,调查了中国高速动车组的线路条件、动车组的车轮踏面磨耗情况,分析轮轨匹配关系;动力学分析中考虑了转臂节点、抗蛇行减振器、空气弹簧等部件的非线性特性,橡胶、减振器等减振元件高低温变化条件下车辆参数的变化,电机弹性悬挂方式等,在实际轮轨匹配关系基础上建立了车辆系统动力学模型。动力学系统仿真选择了最优悬挂参数,结合部件台架测试对悬挂元件进行了工程化设计;为掌握转向架服役周期内关键部件可靠性,对运用动车组转向架进行了大量的动应力测试,系统分析了中国无砟轨道条件下转向架主要承载区域载荷随车辆运营周期、不同气候条件、不同线路条件下的变化趋势,建立了中国高速列车载荷谱体系。通过结构、悬挂、传动、制动、焊接、降噪、轮轨等系统集成,形成高速列车转向架技术体系。

关键词: 高速列车;轮轨关系;系统动力学;载荷谱;结构优化    

High-order moment methods for LRFD including random variables with unknown probability distributions

Zhao-Hui LU, Yan-Gang ZHAO, Zhi-Wu YU

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2013年 第7卷 第3期   页码 288-295 doi: 10.1007/s11709-013-0210-1

摘要: The reliability-based load and resistance factors design (LRFD) has been widely used in the structural design codes. In almost all of the current reliability methods for the determination of the load and resistance factors, the basic random variables are assumed to have known probability distributions. However, in reality, the probability distributions of some of the basic random variables are often unknown due to the lack of statistical data. In this paper, the high-order moment methods for LRFD including random variables with unknown probability distributions are proposed. From the investigation of the present paper, it can be concluded that: 1) The load and resistance factors can be determined even when the probability distributions of the basic random variables are unknown; 2) The present method is convenient and more effective in estimating the load and resistance factors in practical engineering since it needs neither the iterative computation of derivatives nor any design points; 3) In the applicable range of the high-order moment method, although the load and resistance factors obtained by the proposed method may be different from those obtained by first order reliability method (FORM), the target mean resistances obtained by both methods are essentially the same.

关键词: high-order moment methods     applicable range     load and resistance factors     target mean resistance    

Calculation method of load distribution on pipe threaded connections under tension load

Shoujun CHEN, Lianxin GAO, Qi AN

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2011年 第6卷 第2期   页码 241-248 doi: 10.1007/s11465-011-0219-x

摘要:

This paper presents a new calculation method that can calculate the load distribution on pipe threaded connections under tension load. On the basis of elastic mechanics, the new method was developed by analyzing each thread tooth, and a new deformation and covariant equation by making a mechanics analysis on each thread tooth was obtained. Compared with the traditional method proposed by the previous references, the new deformation and covariant equation could be used to describe the relation between the previous and the next thread tooth. By applying the new method on the sample of P-110S pipe threaded connection, the obtained results show that the load on thread tooth mainly concentrates on the four or five threads engaged and the middle teeth were not utilized well to bear the loads. The model offers a new way to calculate the loads carried on the thread teeth under tension load.

关键词: load distribution     calculation method     pipe threaded connections     tension load    

海洋二号卫星大惯量旋转部件干扰力矩抑制技术

周勇,李正军,马超,王小宁

《中国工程科学》 2014年 第16卷 第3期   页码 43-49

摘要:

海洋二号(HY-2A)卫星要求微波散射计和微波辐射计实现扫描过程中所产生的力矩波动不能影响卫星姿态稳定度。这两个载荷使用永磁同步电动机矢量控制,对负载直接驱动;通过电机本体采用齿槽转矩优化设计、采用固定角度计时法消除量化误差、相电流测量误差控制、逆变器死区补偿等措施,抑制转矩波动。通过电机本体和控制策略进行联合精确模型仿真,分析了系统的转矩波动。由在轨遥测数据分析可得,实现了大惯量旋转部件的精确控制。

关键词: 大惯量     力矩波动     量化误差     死区     精确模型    

Comparison of optimal capacitor placement methods in radial distribution system with load growth andZIP load model

Veera Venkata Satya Naryana MURTY, Ashwani KUMAR

《能源前沿(英文)》 2013年 第7卷 第2期   页码 197-213 doi: 10.1007/s11708-013-0249-7

摘要: In this paper, a combined power loss sensitivity (PLS) index-based approach is proposed to determine the optimal location of the capacitors in the radial distribution system (RDS) based on the real and reactive combined loss sensitivity index, as capacitor placement not only reduces real power loss with voltage profile improvement but also reduces reactive power loss due to the reactive power compensation in the network. The results have been obtained with the existing methods of power loss index (PLI) and index vector (IV) method for comparison. Besides, the optimal placement has been obtained with the proposed method as well as existing methods and the total kVar support has been obtained. In addition, the results of net cost savings for the 10-, 34-, and 69-bus systems are obtained for comparison. Moreover, the results have been obtained for a large system of 85 buses to validate the results with combined sensitivity based approach. Furthermore, the load growth factor has been considered in the study which is essential for the planning and expansion of the existing systems, whereas the impact of the realistic load model as ZIP load model has been considered for the study of all the systems.

关键词: load growth     load models     reactive power compensation     radial distribution system     power loss index (PLI)     power loss sensitivity (PLS)     index vector (IV)    

A practical multi-lane factor model of bridges based on multi-truck presence considering lane load disparities

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第4期   页码 877-894 doi: 10.1007/s11709-021-0756-2

摘要: Many bridge design specifications consider multi-lane factors (MLFs) a critical component of the traffic load model. Measured multi-lane traffic data generally exhibit significant lane disparities in traffic loads over multiple lanes. However, these disparities are not considered in current specifications. To address this drawback, a multi-coefficient MLF model was developed based on an improved probabilistic statistical approach that considers the presence of multiple trucks. The proposed MLF model and approach were calibrated and demonstrated through an example site. The model sensitivity analysis demonstrated the significant influence of lane disparity of truck traffic volume and truck weight distribution on the MLF. Using the proposed approach, the experimental site study yielded MLFs comparable with those directly calculated using traffic load effects. The exclusion of overloaded trucks caused the proposed approach, existing design specifications, and conventional approach of ignoring lane load disparity to generate comparable MLFs, while the MLFs based on the proposed approach were the most comprehensive. The inclusion of overloaded trucks caused the conventional approach and design specifications to overestimate the MLFs significantly. Finally, the benefits of the research results to bridge practitioners were discussed.

关键词: bridges     multi-lane factor     traffic load     lane load disparity     multi-truck presence     weigh-in-motion data    

Shape design of arch dams under load uncertainties with robust optimization

Fengjie TAN, Tom LAHMER

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第13卷 第4期   页码 852-862 doi: 10.1007/s11709-019-0522-x

摘要: Due to an increased need in hydro-electricity, water storage, and flood protection, it is assumed that a series of new dams will be build throughout the world. The focus of this paper is on the non-probabilistic-based design of new arch-type dams by applying means of robust design optimization (RDO). This type of optimization takes into account uncertainties in the loads and in the material properties of the structure. As classical procedures of probabilistic-based optimization under uncertainties, such as RDO and reliability-based design optimization (RBDO), are in general computationally expensive and rely on estimates of the system’s response variance, we will not follow a full-probabilistic approach but work with predefined confidence levels. This leads to a bi-level optimization program where the volume of the dam is optimized under the worst combination of the uncertain parameters. As a result, robust and reliable designs are obtained and the result is independent from any assumptions on stochastic properties of the random variables in the model. The optimization of an arch-type dam is realized here by a robust optimization method under load uncertainty, where hydraulic and thermal loads are considered. The load uncertainty is modeled as an ellipsoidal expression. Comparing with any traditional deterministic optimization method, which only concerns the minimum objective value and offers a solution candidate close to limit-states, the RDO method provides a robust solution against uncertainty. To reduce the computational cost, a ranking strategy and an approximation model are further involved to do a preliminary screening. By this means, the robust design can generate an improved arch dam structure that ensures both safety and serviceability during its lifetime.

关键词: arch dam     shape optimization     robust optimization     load uncertainty     approximation model    

Prediction of bed load sediments using different artificial neural network models

Reza ASHEGHI, Seyed Abbas HOSSEINI

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2020年 第14卷 第2期   页码 374-386 doi: 10.1007/s11709-019-0600-0

摘要: Modeling and prediction of bed loads is an important but difficult issue in river engineering. The introduced empirical equations due to restricted applicability even in similar conditions provide different accuracies with each other and measured data. In this paper, three different artificial neural networks (ANNs) including multilayer percepterons, radial based function (RBF), and generalized feed forward neural network using five dominant parameters of bed load transport formulas for the Main Fork Red River in Idaho-USA were developed. The optimum models were found through 102 data sets of flow discharge, flow velocity, water surface slopes, flow depth, and mean grain size. The deficiency of empirical equations for this river by conducted comparison between measured and predicted values was approved where the ANN models presented more consistence and closer estimation to observed data. The coefficient of determination between measured and predicted values for empirical equations varied from 0.10 to 0.21 against the 0.93 to 0.98 in ANN models. The accuracy performance of all models was evaluated and interpreted using different statistical error criteria, analytical graphs and confusion matrixes. Although the ANN models predicted compatible outputs but the RBF with 79% correct classification rate corresponding to 0.191 network error was outperform than others.

关键词: bed load prediction     artificial neural network     modeling     empirical equations    

A method to predict cooling load of large commercial buildings based on weather forecast and internal

Junbao JIA,Jincheng XING,Jihong LING,Ren PENG

《能源前沿(英文)》 2016年 第10卷 第4期   页码 459-465 doi: 10.1007/s11708-016-0424-8

摘要: Considering the fact that customers of large commercial buildings have the characteristics of the higher density and randomness, this paper presented an air-conditioning cooling load prediction method based on weather forecast and internal occupancy density. The multiple linear feedback regression model was applied to predict, with precision, the air conditioning cooling load. Case analysis showed that the largest mean relative error of hourly and the daily predicting cooling load maximum were 18.1% and 5.14%, respectively.

关键词: commercial building     load prediction     multiple linear regression    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Distribution of background equivalent static wind load on high-rise buildings

Jianguo ZHANG , Ming GU ,

期刊论文

State identification of home appliance with transient features in residential buildings

期刊论文

A methodology for regulating fuel stratification and improving fuel economy of GCI mode via double main-injection strategy

期刊论文

An approach for evaluating fire resistance of high strength Q460 steel columns

Wei-Yong WANG, Guo-Qiang LI, Bao-lin YU

期刊论文

Estimation of composite load model with aggregate induction motor dynamic load for an isolated hybrid

Nitin Kumar SAXENA,Ashwani Kumar SHARMA

期刊论文

基于惯性能时空最优分布的高加速轻载机构精密定位方法

陈新,白有盾,杨志军,高健,陈贡发

期刊论文

高速列车转向架技术研究

赵明花,梁树林,宋春元

期刊论文

High-order moment methods for LRFD including random variables with unknown probability distributions

Zhao-Hui LU, Yan-Gang ZHAO, Zhi-Wu YU

期刊论文

Calculation method of load distribution on pipe threaded connections under tension load

Shoujun CHEN, Lianxin GAO, Qi AN

期刊论文

海洋二号卫星大惯量旋转部件干扰力矩抑制技术

周勇,李正军,马超,王小宁

期刊论文

Comparison of optimal capacitor placement methods in radial distribution system with load growth andZIP load model

Veera Venkata Satya Naryana MURTY, Ashwani KUMAR

期刊论文

A practical multi-lane factor model of bridges based on multi-truck presence considering lane load disparities

期刊论文

Shape design of arch dams under load uncertainties with robust optimization

Fengjie TAN, Tom LAHMER

期刊论文

Prediction of bed load sediments using different artificial neural network models

Reza ASHEGHI, Seyed Abbas HOSSEINI

期刊论文

A method to predict cooling load of large commercial buildings based on weather forecast and internal

Junbao JIA,Jincheng XING,Jihong LING,Ren PENG

期刊论文