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Application of nanotechnologies in the energy sector: A brief and short review

Ferric CHRISTIAN, EDITH, SELLY, Dendy ADITYAWARMAN, Antonius INDARTO

《能源前沿(英文)》 2013年 第7卷 第1期   页码 6-18 doi: 10.1007/s11708-012-0219-5

摘要: Energy is of great importance in human life because of its benefits as the main resource for human activity. According to International Energy Agency (IEA), energy demands are expected to continue increasing until 2030. Because energy demand will never decrease, it is necessary to develop modern technology, such as nano-based technology, in order to obtain a more effective and efficient process to produce more energy. The application of nano technology or nano material in the field of energy, which involves lithium-ion battery, fuel cell, light emitting diode (LED), ultra-capacitor, and solar cell (including Gr?tzel cell), is a hot topic in many scientific researches. Unfortunately, its current development is hampered by the expensive cost of production compared to conventional technologies. Therefore, priority should be given to nano technology in the energy sector order to obtain higher efficiency, lower production cost, and easier in its application.

关键词: nanotechnology     energy     batteries     fuel cell     Gr?tzel cell     solar cell    

同质集成可见光互联芯片 Article

Wei CAI, Bing-cheng ZHU, Xu-min GAO, Yong-chao YANG, Jia-lei YUAN, Gui-xia ZHU, Yong-jin WANG, Peter GRÜNBERG

《信息与电子工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第18卷 第9期   页码 1288-1294 doi: 10.1631/FITEE.1601720

摘要: 本文采用晶圆级微纳加工技术,基于硅衬底氮化镓晶圆,提出并制备了同质集成发射极、集电极和基极的可见光互联芯片。利用InGaN/GaN量子阱二极管器件发光探测共存的特性,芯片的发射极和集电极采用相同的量子阱结构,并通过相同的制备工艺实现。发射极和集电极之间通过悬空的光波导连接,实现器件之间的光互联。同质集成可见光互联芯片集成两个共基极的光致晶体管,实现芯片内可见光的发射、传输和探测功能。该可见光互联芯片可以广泛应用于光致类脑神经形态芯片、芯片内可见光通信、智能显示、微纳成像及光传感等领域。

关键词: 同质集成;量子阱二极管;可见光互联;发光探测共存现象    

Microfluidics for cell-cell interactions: A review

Rui Li,Xuefei Lv,Xingjian Zhang,Omer Saeed,Yulin Deng

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2016年 第10卷 第1期   页码 90-98 doi: 10.1007/s11705-015-1550-2

摘要: Microfluidic chip has been applied in various biological fields owing to its low-consumption of reagents, high throughput, fluidic controllability and integrity. The well-designed microscale intermediary is also ideal for the study of cell biology. Particularly, microfluidic chip is helpful for better understanding cell-cell interactions. A general survey of recent publications would help to generalize the designs of the co-culture chips with different features. With ingenious and combinational utilization, the chips facilitate the implementation of some special co-culture models that are highly concerned in a different spatial and temporal way.

关键词: microfluidic chip     co-culture     cell-cell interactions     review    

Distinct mononuclear diploid cardiac subpopulation with minimal cellcell communications persists in

《医学前沿(英文)》   页码 939-956 doi: 10.1007/s11684-023-0987-9

摘要: A small proportion of mononuclear diploid cardiomyocytes (MNDCMs), with regeneration potential, could persist in adult mammalian heart. However, the heterogeneity of MNDCMs and changes during development remains to be illuminated. To this end, 12 645 cardiac cells were generated from embryonic day 17.5 and postnatal days 2 and 8 mice by single-cell RNA sequencing. Three cardiac developmental paths were identified: two switching to cardiomyocytes (CM) maturation with close CM–fibroblast (FB) communications and one maintaining MNDCM status with least CM–FB communications. Proliferative MNDCMs having interactions with macrophages and non-proliferative MNDCMs (non-pMNDCMs) with minimal cell–cell communications were identified in the third path. The non-pMNDCMs possessed distinct properties: the lowest mitochondrial metabolisms, the highest glycolysis, and high expression of Myl4 and Tnni1. Single-nucleus RNA sequencing and immunohistochemical staining further proved that the Myl4+Tnni1+ MNDCMs persisted in embryonic and adult hearts. These MNDCMs were mapped to the heart by integrating the spatial and single-cell transcriptomic data. In conclusion, a novel non-pMNDCM subpopulation with minimal cell–cell communications was unveiled, highlighting the importance of microenvironment contribution to CM fate during maturation. These findings could improve the understanding of MNDCM heterogeneity and cardiac development, thus providing new clues for approaches to effective cardiac regeneration.

关键词: mononuclear diploid cardiomyocytes     cell–cell communication     cardiac fibroblast     single-cell RNA sequencing     cardiac regeneration    

Deubiquitinases as pivotal regulators of T cell functions

null

《医学前沿(英文)》 2018年 第12卷 第4期   页码 451-462 doi: 10.1007/s11684-018-0651-y

摘要:

T cells efficiently respond to foreign antigens to mediate immune responses against infections but are tolerant to self-tissues. Defect in T cell activation is associated with severe immune deficiencies, whereas aberrant T cell activation contributes to the pathogenesis of diverse autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. An emerging mechanism that regulates T cell activation and tolerance is ubiquitination, a reversible process of protein modification that is counter-regulated by ubiquitinating enzymes and deubiquitinases (DUBs). DUBs are isopeptidases that cleave polyubiquitin chains and remove ubiquitin from target proteins, thereby controlling the magnitude and duration of ubiquitin signaling. It is now well recognized that DUBs are crucial regulators of T cell responses and serve as potential therapeutic targets for manipulating immune responses in the treatment of immunological disorders and cancer. This review will discuss the recent progresses regarding the functions of DUBs in T cells.

关键词: deubiquitinase     ubiquitination     T cell activation     T cell differentiation     T cell tolerance    

Cell surface protein engineering for high-performance whole-cell catalysts

Hajime Nakatani,Katsutoshi Hori

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第11卷 第1期   页码 46-57 doi: 10.1007/s11705-017-1609-3

摘要: Cell surface protein engineering facilitated by accumulation of information on genome and protein structure involves heterologous production and modification of cell surface proteins using genetic engineering, and is important for the development of high-performance whole-cell catalysts. In this field, cell surface display is a major technology by exposing target proteins, such as enzymes, on the cell surface using a carrier protein. The target proteins are fused to the carrier proteins that transport and tether them to the cell surface, as well as to a secretion signal. This paper reviews cell surface display systems for prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells from the perspective of carrier proteins, which determine the number of displayed molecules, and the localization, size, and direction ( or terminal anchoring) of the passengers. We also discuss advanced methods for displaying multiple enzymes and a new method for the immobilization of whole-cell catalysts using adhesive surface proteins.

关键词: cell surface engineering     surface display     whole-cell catalysts     bioprocess    

Stem cell niches and endogenous electric fields in tissue repair

null

《医学前沿(英文)》 2011年 第5卷 第1期   页码 40-44 doi: 10.1007/s11684-011-0108-z

摘要:

Adult stem cells are responsible for homeostasis and repair of many tissues. Endogenous adult stem cells reside in certain regions of organs, known as the stem cell niche, which is recognized to have an important role in regulating tissue maintenance and repair. In wound healing and tissue repair, stem cells are mobilized and recruited to the site of wound, and participate in the repair process. Many regulatory factors are involved in the stem cell-based repair process, including stem cell niches and endogenous wound electric fields, which are present at wound tissues and proved to be important in guiding wound healing. Here we briefly review the role of stem cell niches and endogenous electric fields in tissue repair, and hypothesize that endogenous electric fields become part of stem cell niche in the wound site.

关键词: stem cell     stem cell niche     electric field     tissue repair    

CAR T-cell immunotherapy: a powerful weapon for fighting hematological B-cell malignancies

《医学前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第6期   页码 783-804 doi: 10.1007/s11684-021-0904-z

摘要: The current standard of care in hematological malignancies has brought considerable clinical benefits to patients. However, important bottlenecks still limit optimal achievements following a current medical practice. The genetic complexity of the diseases and the heterogeneity of tumor clones cause difficulty in ensuring long-term efficacy of conventional treatments for most hematological disorders. Consequently, new treatment strategies are necessary to improve clinical outcomes. Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR T) immunotherapy opens a new path for targeted therapy of hematological malignancies. In this review, through a representative case study, we summarize the current experience of CAR T-cell therapy, the management of common side effects, the causative mechanisms of therapy resistance, and new strategies to improve the efficacy of CAR T-cell therapy.

关键词: CAR T cells     hematological malignancies     review    

Aldolase B attenuates clear cell renal cell carcinoma progression by inhibiting CtBP2

《医学前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第3期   页码 503-517 doi: 10.1007/s11684-022-0947-9

摘要: Aldolase B (ALDOB), a glycolytic enzyme, is uniformly depleted in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) tissues. We previously showed that ALDOB inhibited proliferation through a mechanism independent of its enzymatic activity in ccRCC, but the mechanism was not unequivocally identified. We showed that the corepressor C-terminal-binding protein 2 (CtBP2) is a novel ALDOB-interacting protein in ccRCC. The CtBP2-to-ALDOB expression ratio in clinical samples was correlated with the expression of CtBP2 target genes and was associated with shorter survival. ALDOB inhibited CtBP2-mediated repression of multiple cell cycle inhibitor, proapoptotic, and epithelial marker genes. Furthermore, ALDOB overexpression decreased the proliferation and migration of ccRCC cells in an ALDOB-CtBP2 interaction-dependent manner. Mechanistically, our findings showed that ALDOB recruited acireductone dioxygenase 1, which catalyzes the synthesis of an endogenous inhibitor of CtBP2, 4-methylthio 2-oxobutyric acid. ALDOB functions as a scaffold to bring acireductone dioxygenase and CtBP2 in close proximity to potentiate acireductone dioxygenase-mediated inhibition of CtBP2, and this scaffolding effect was independent of ALDOB enzymatic activity. Moreover, increased ALDOB expression inhibited tumor growth in a xenograft model and decreased lung metastasis in vivo. Our findings reveal that ALDOB is a negative regulator of CtBP2 and inhibits tumor growth and metastasis in ccRCC.

关键词: ALDOB     kidney cancer     cell proliferation    

The unregulated commercialization of stem cell treatments: a global perspective

Douglas Sipp

《医学前沿(英文)》 2011年 第5卷 第4期   页码 348-355 doi: 10.1007/s11684-011-0150-x

摘要: Research into the biological properties and clinical potential of stem cells has spurred strong public investment, industry development, media coverage, and patient interest in recent years. To date, however, few clinical applications of demonstrated safety and efficacy have been developed with the exception of uses of hematopoietic stem cells in the treatment of diseases of the blood and immune systems. This lack of an evidence basis notwithstanding, hundreds of companies and private clinics around the world now sell putative stem cell treatments for an enormously broad range of medical and quality-of-life conditions. This represents a major challenge for legitimate scientists working in the field, for authorities seeking to protect their constituencies, and for patients and consumers targeted by such companies’ marketing strategies. In this review, I provide an overview of the global industry in pseudomedical stem cell treatments, with an investigation of claims in a single disease area (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), and make recommendations for the introduction and enforcement of appropriate regulatory responses to this problem.

关键词: stem cell tourism     medical ethics     stem cell policy and regulation     alternative medicine    

Fine-tuning cell organelle dynamics during mitosis by small GTPases

《医学前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第3期   页码 339-357 doi: 10.1007/s11684-022-0926-1

摘要: During mitosis, the allocation of genetic material concurs with organelle transformation and distribution. The coordination of genetic material inheritance with organelle dynamics directs accurate mitotic progression, cell fate determination, and organismal homeostasis. Small GTPases belonging to the Ras superfamily regulate various cell organelles during division. Being the key regulators of membrane dynamics, the dysregulation of small GTPases is widely associated with cell organelle disruption in neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases, such as cancer and Alzheimer’s disease. Recent discoveries shed light on the molecular properties of small GTPases as sophisticated modulators of a remarkably complex and perfect adaptors for rapid structure reformation. This review collects current knowledge on small GTPases in the regulation of cell organelles during mitosis and highlights the mediator role of small GTPase in transducing cell cycle signaling to organelle dynamics during mitosis.

关键词: small GTPase     cell organelle     mitosis    

A comprehensive assessment on the durability of gas diffusion electrode materials in PEM fuel cell stack

Arunkumar JAYAKUMAR

《能源前沿(英文)》 2019年 第13卷 第2期   页码 325-338 doi: 10.1007/s11708-019-0618-y

摘要: Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is the most promising among the various types of fuel cells. Though it has found its applications in numerous fields, the cost and durability are key barriers impeding the commercialization of PEM fuel cell stack. The crucial and expensive component involved in it is the gas diffusion electrode (GDE) and its degradation, which limits the performance and life of the fuel cell stack. A critical analysis and comprehensive understanding of the structural and functional properties of various materials involved in the GDE can help us to address the related durability and cost issues. This paper reviews the key GDE components, and in specific, the root causes influencing the durability. It also envisages the role of novel materials and provides a critical recommendation to improve the GDE durability.

关键词: PEM fuel cell     gas diffusion electrode(GDE)     gas diffusion layer(GDL)     membrane electrode assembly     durability     fuel cell catalyst    

Highlights of mainstream solar cell efficiencies in 2021

《能源前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第1期   页码 1-8 doi: 10.1007/s11708-022-0816-x

A hybrid fuel cell for water purification and simultaneously electricity generation

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第1期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-023-1611-6

摘要:

● A novel hybrid fuel cell (F-HFC) was fabricated.

关键词: Flow-through field     Hybrid fuel cell     Polyoxometalates     Water purification     Electricity generation    

Highlights of mainstream solar cell efficiencies in 2022

《能源前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第1期   页码 9-15 doi: 10.1007/s11708-023-0871-y

摘要: Highlights of mainstream solar cell efficiencies in 2022

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Application of nanotechnologies in the energy sector: A brief and short review

Ferric CHRISTIAN, EDITH, SELLY, Dendy ADITYAWARMAN, Antonius INDARTO

期刊论文

同质集成可见光互联芯片

Wei CAI, Bing-cheng ZHU, Xu-min GAO, Yong-chao YANG, Jia-lei YUAN, Gui-xia ZHU, Yong-jin WANG, Peter GRÜNBERG

期刊论文

Microfluidics for cell-cell interactions: A review

Rui Li,Xuefei Lv,Xingjian Zhang,Omer Saeed,Yulin Deng

期刊论文

Distinct mononuclear diploid cardiac subpopulation with minimal cellcell communications persists in

期刊论文

Deubiquitinases as pivotal regulators of T cell functions

null

期刊论文

Cell surface protein engineering for high-performance whole-cell catalysts

Hajime Nakatani,Katsutoshi Hori

期刊论文

Stem cell niches and endogenous electric fields in tissue repair

null

期刊论文

CAR T-cell immunotherapy: a powerful weapon for fighting hematological B-cell malignancies

期刊论文

Aldolase B attenuates clear cell renal cell carcinoma progression by inhibiting CtBP2

期刊论文

The unregulated commercialization of stem cell treatments: a global perspective

Douglas Sipp

期刊论文

Fine-tuning cell organelle dynamics during mitosis by small GTPases

期刊论文

A comprehensive assessment on the durability of gas diffusion electrode materials in PEM fuel cell stack

Arunkumar JAYAKUMAR

期刊论文

Highlights of mainstream solar cell efficiencies in 2021

期刊论文

A hybrid fuel cell for water purification and simultaneously electricity generation

期刊论文

Highlights of mainstream solar cell efficiencies in 2022

期刊论文