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Genetic study and molecular breeding for high phosphorus use efficiency in maize

null

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第6卷 第4期   页码 366-379 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2019278

摘要:

Phosphorus is the second most important macronutrient after nitrogen and it has many vital functions in the life of plants. Most soils have a low available P content, which has become a key limiting factor for increasing crop production. Also, low P use efficiency (PUE) of crops in conjunction with excessive application of P fertilizers has resulted in serious environmental problems. Thus, dissecting the genetic architecture of crop PUE, mining related quantitative trait loci (QTL) and using molecular breeding methods to improve high PUE germplasm are of great significance and serve as an efficient approach for the development of sustainable agriculture. In this review, molecular and phenotypic characteristics of maize inbred lines with high PUE, related QTL and genes as well as low-P responses are summarized. Based on this, a breeding strategy applying genomic selection as the core, and integrating the existing genetic information and molecular breeding techniques is proposed for breeding high PUE maize inbred lines and hybrids.

关键词: maize     phosphorus use efficiency     quantitative trait loci     genetic study     molecular breeding     genomic selection    

Aphanomyces euteiches ——加拿大豌豆生产的严重威胁 Review

Longfei Wu,Kan-Fa Chang,Robert L. Conner,Stephen Strelkov,Rudolph Fredua-Agyeman,Sheau-Fang Hwang,David Feindel

《工程(英文)》 2018年 第4卷 第4期   页码 542-551 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2018.07.006

摘要:

豌豆(Pisum sativum var. arvense L.)是世界上重要的豆科作物。豌豆籽粒蛋白质含量很高,并能提高土壤中有效氮的含量。由一种土传卵菌根腐丝囊霉(Aphanomyces euteiches Drechs.)引起的Aphanomyces 根腐病(ARR),在包括加拿大在内的许多地区对豌豆生产构成严重威胁,在潮湿的土壤条件下引起严重的根损伤、萎蔫,造成大幅度减产。在有利于病害发生的条件下,由于病原体卵孢子的寿命长,在豌豆任何生长阶段都可以侵染豌豆植株,传统病害防控措施(如作物轮作和拌种处理)不能完全防治病害的危害。培育部分抗病或耐病豌豆品种可能是分析豌豆中根腐丝囊霉变异性和生理转化性、提高病害防治效果的有效途径。因此,检测抗病数量性状基因座(QTL)对豌豆育种计划至关重要。本文对根腐丝囊霉的致病特点、ARR 防控措施以及部分与抗性相关的QTL 进行了综述。

关键词: 豌豆     Aphanomyces euteiches     根腐病     致病力变异     数量性状基因座    

免疫球蛋白G N-糖基化与代谢特征之间的双向因果关联——一项孟德尔随机化研究 Article

孟晓妮, 曹维杰, 刘迪, Isinta Elijah Maranga, 邢薇佳, 侯海峰, 徐希柱, 宋曼殳, 王友信

《工程(英文)》 2023年 第26卷 第7期   页码 74-88 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2022.11.004

摘要: 本研究使用孟德尔随机化(Mendelian randomization, MR)研究方法整合全基因组关联研究(genome-wide association studies, GWAS)和数量性状基因座(quantitativetrait loci, QTL)数据探究IgG N-糖基化与代谢特征之间的双向因果关联。

关键词: 孟德尔随机化研究     免疫球蛋白 G     N-糖基化     代谢特征     数量性状位点     双向因果关联    

Singularity loci of an orthogonal spherical two-degree-of-freedom parallel mechanism

Jialun YANG, Feng GAO,

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2009年 第4卷 第4期   页码 379-385 doi: 10.1007/s11465-009-0075-0

摘要: Singularity analysis plays an important role in the design of robots, especially for parallel robots. In this paper, the direct and inverse kinematics of an orthogonal spherical two-degree-of-freedom parallel mechanism is proposed based on the modified Euler angles. All the singular poses of the mechanism are achieved through the direct kinematic analysis. Self-motions, which are different from the general spherical 5 parallel mechanisms, are also discussed. Singularity loci in the joint space and Cartesian space are plotted according to the Jacobin of the mechanism. Result shows that the singularity loci at the joint space are two circles and one line, whereas at the Cartesian space are a circle.

关键词: 2-DOF orthogonal spherical parallel mechanism     singularity loci     self-motions    

Comments on “Determination of heterozygosity for avirulence/virulence loci through sexual hybridization

Ralf T. Voegele

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第4卷 第1期   页码 121-122 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2017142

Top-geoherbs of traditional Chinese medicine: common trait, quality characteristics and formation

Luqi Huang, Lanping Guo, Chaoyi Ma, Wei Gao, Qingjun Yuan

《医学前沿(英文)》 2011年 第5卷 第2期   页码 185-194 doi: 10.1007/s11684-011-0141-y

摘要: Top-geoherbs used in China are always featured with high qualities, and they grow in specified areas with specific environment. Recently, researches on top-geoherbs have attracted increasing attention in China and other countries. In order to have a thorough knowledge of top-geoherbs, this article reviews the concept, historical evolution, common trait and quality characteristics of top-geoherbs, and explains the forming mechanism including genetic mechanism and environmental mechanism. In addition, it introduces the influence of human factors on the quality of top-geoherbs. Finally, it proposes some problems that should be paid attention to in the researches on top-geoherbs.

关键词: top-geoherbs     common trait     quality characteristics     formation     biological mechanism    

THE ROLE OF LONG-TERM EXPERIMENTS IN VALIDATING TRAIT-BASED APPROACHES TO ACHIEVING MULTIFUNCTIONALITY

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第9卷 第2期   页码 187-196 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2021438

摘要:

Quantifying the relationships between plant functional traits and ecosystem services has been promoted as an approach to achieving multifunctional grassland systems that balance productivity with other regulating, supporting and cultural services. Establishing trade-offs and synergies between traits and services has largely relied on meta-analyses of studies from different systems and environments. This study demonstrated the value of focused studies of long-term experiments in grassland systems that measure traits and services in the same space and time to better understand the ecological constraints underlying these trade-offs and synergies. An analysis is presented that uses data from the Park Grass Experiment at Rothamsted Research on above-ground productivity, species richness and soil organic carbon stocks to quantify the relationships between these three outcomes and the power of variance in plant functional traits in explaining them. There was a trade-off between plots with high productivity, nitrogen inputs and soil organic carbon and plots with high species richness that was explained by a functional gradient of traits that are indicative of contrasting strategies of resource acquisition of resource conservation. Examples were identified of using functional traits to identify opportunities for mitigating these trade-offs and moving toward more multifunctional systems.

关键词: multifunctional grassland systems / Park Grass Experiment / soil organic carbon / ecosystem service    

Determination of heterozygosity for avirulence/virulence loci through sexual hybridization of

Yuan TIAN,Gangming ZHAN,Xia LU,Jie ZHAO,Lili HUANG,Zhensheng KANG

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第4卷 第1期   页码 48-58 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2016114

摘要: Wheat stripe rust caused by f. sp. is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat worldwide and resistant cultivars are vital for its management. Therefore, investigating the heterozygosity of the pathogen is important because of rapid virulence changes in isolates heterozygous for avirulence/virulence. An isolate of f. sp. was selfed on to determine the heterozygosity for avirulence/virulence loci. One hundred and twenty progeny isolates obtained from this selfing were phenotyped using 25 lines of wheat containing genes and genotyped with 96 simple sequencing repeat markers, with 51 pathotypes and 55 multi-locus genotypes being identified. All of these were avirulent on lines with , , , and and virulent on lines with , and , indicating that the parental isolate was homozygously avirulent or homozygously virulent for these loci. Segregation was found for wheat lines with , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and . The 17 cultivars to which the was identified as heterozygous with respect to virulence/avirulence should not be given priority in breeding programs to obtain new resistant cultivars.

关键词: Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici     selfing     heterozygosity     virulence inheritance    

A computational toolbox for molecular property prediction based on quantum mechanics and quantitative

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第2期   页码 152-167 doi: 10.1007/s11705-021-2060-z

摘要: Chemical industry is always seeking opportunities to efficiently and economically convert raw materials to commodity chemicals and higher value-added chemical-based products. The life cycles of chemical products involve the procedures of conceptual product designs, experimental investigations, sustainable manufactures through appropriate chemical processes and waste disposals. During these periods, one of the most important keys is the molecular property prediction models associating molecular structures with product properties. In this paper, a framework combining quantum mechanics and quantitative structure-property relationship is established for fast molecular property predictions, such as activity coefficient, and so forth. The workflow of framework consists of three steps. In the first step, a database is created for collections of basic molecular information; in the second step, quantum mechanics-based calculations are performed to predict quantum mechanics-based/derived molecular properties (pseudo experimental data), which are stored in a database and further provided for the developments of quantitative structure-property relationship methods for fast predictions of properties in the third step. The whole framework has been carried out within a molecular property prediction toolbox. Two case studies highlighting different aspects of the toolbox involving the predictions of heats of reaction and solid-liquid phase equilibriums are presented.

关键词: molecular property     quantum mechanics     quantitative structure-property relationship     heat of reaction     solid-liquid phase equilibrium    

Functional trait differences between native bunchgrasses and the invasive grass

Huiqin HE, Thomas A. MONACO, Thomas A. JONES

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2018年 第5卷 第1期   页码 139-147 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2017175

摘要: We conducted 30- and 60-d greenhouse experiments to compare functional traits of (invasive annual grass) and four perennial bunchgrasses under well-watered or drought conditions. Even under drought, experienced significantly less stress (i.e., higher xylem pressure potential and greater shoot water content, water use per day and water-use efficiency) and biomass production than the perennial grasses after 30 d. However, after 60 d, its superiority was reduced under infrequent watering. Differences among perennial grasses were more pronounced for physiological traits under infrequent watering and for morphological traits under frequent watering. (fast-growing species) had a higher transpiration rate, lower leaf temperature, and lower water-use efficiency than the other grasses after 30 d. In contrast, (slow-growing) had lower xylem pressure potential and higher leaf temperature than all other grasses under infrequent watering. Under frequent watering, shoot dry mass and specific leaf area of was matched by (moderate-growing species). Our results indicate that multiple-species plantings or seedings are necessary to foster greater weed resistance against . We also emphasize that when choosing plant material for restoration, performance during both pulse (resource-rich) and inter-pulse (resource-poor) periods should be considered.

关键词: annual grass     comparative growth     drought response     invasive plant     native grass     specific leaf area     soil-water use    

Erratum to: Using pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR to analyze microbial communities

Husen ZHANG

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2011年 第5卷 第3期   页码 488-488 doi: 10.1007/s11783-011-0342-2

Genome-wide association study of the backfat thickness trait in two pig populations

Dandan ZHU,Xiaolei LIU,Rothschild MAX,Zhiwu ZHANG,Shuhong ZHAO,Bin FAN

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第1卷 第2期   页码 91-95 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2014005

摘要: Backfat thickness is a good predictor of carcass lean content, an economically important trait, and a main breeding target in pig improvement. In this study, the candidate genes and genomic regions associated with the tenth rib backfat thickness trait were identified in two independent pig populations, using a genome-wide association study of porcine 60K SNP genotype data applying the compressed mixed linear model (CMLM) statistical method. For each population, 30 most significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected and SNP annotation implemented using Build 10.2. In the first population, 25 significant SNPs were distributed on seven chromosomes, and SNPs on SSC1 and SSC7 showed great significance for fat deposition. The most significant SNP (ALGA0006623) was located on SSC1, upstream of the gene. In the second population, 27 significant SNPs were recognized by annotation, and 12 SNPs on SSC12 were related to fat deposition. Two haplotype blocks, M1GA0016251-MARC0075799 and ALGA0065251-MARC0014203-M1GA0016298-ALGA0065308, were detected in significant regions where the and genes were identified as contributing to fat metabolism. The results indicated that genetic mechanism regulating backfat thickness is complex, and that genome-wide associations can be affected by populations with different genetic backgrounds.

关键词: backfat thickness     SNP chip     genome-wide association study     compressed mixed linear model     pig    

Estimation of photolysis half-lives of dyes in a continuous-flow system with the aid of quantitative

Davoud BEIKNEJAD,Mohammad Javad CHAICHI

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第8卷 第5期   页码 683-692 doi: 10.1007/s11783-014-0680-y

摘要: In this paper the photolysis half-lives of the model dyes in water solutions and under ultraviolet (UV) radiation were determined by using a continuous-flow spectrophotometric method. A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) study was carried out using 21 descriptors based on different chemometric tools including stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR) and partial least squares (PLS) for the prediction of the photolysis half-life ( ) of dyes. For the selection of test set compounds, a K-means clustering technique was used to classify the entire data set, so that all clusters were properly represented in both training and test sets. The QSPR results obtained with these models show that in MLR-derived model, photolysis half-lives of dyes depended strongly on energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital ( ), largest electron density of an atom in the molecule ( ) and lipophilicity (log ). While in the model derived from PLS, besides aforementioned and descriptors, the molecular surface area ( ), molecular weight ( ), electronegativity ( ), energy of the second highest occupied molecular orbital ( ) and dipole moment ( ) had dominant effects on logt values of dyes. These were applicable for all classes of studied dyes (including monoazo, disazo, oxazine, sulfonephthaleins and derivatives of fluorescein). The results were also assessed for their consistency with findings from other similar studies.

关键词: dye     photolysis half-life     quantitative structure-property relationship     continuous-flow     stepwise multiple linear regression     partial least squares    

Application of quantum chemical descriptors into quantitative structure-property relationship models

Yueping BAO, Qiuying HUANG, Wenlong WANG, Jiangjie XU, Fan JIANG, Chenghong FENG

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2011年 第5卷 第4期   页码 505-511 doi: 10.1007/s11783-011-0318-2

摘要: Quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models were developed for prediction of photolysis half-life ( ) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in water under ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Quantum chemical descriptors computed by the PM3 Hamiltonian software were used as independent variables. The cross-validated value for the optimal QSPR model is 0.966, indicating good prediction capability for lg values of PCBs in water. The QSPR results show that the largest negative atomic charge on a carbon atom ( ) and the standard heat of formation (Δ ) have a dominant effect on values of PCBs. Higher values or lower Δ values of the PCBs leads to higher lg values. In addition, the lg values of PCBs increase with the increase in the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital values. Increasing the largest positive atomic charge on a chlorine atom and the most positive net atomic charge on a hydrogen atom in PCBs leads to the decrease of lg values.

关键词: photolysis     polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)     quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPRs)     quantum chemical descriptors    

Genome-wide association analysis reveals genetic loci and candidate genes associated with intramuscular

Xingwang WANG, Rongrong DING, Jianping QUAN, Linxue YANG, Ming YANG, Enqin ZHENG, Dewu LIU, Gengyuan CAI, Zhenfang WU, Jie YANG

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第4卷 第3期   页码 335-341 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2017152

摘要: Intramuscular fat (IMF) is a major meat-quality trait in pigs. The content of IMF is directly associated with the taste and flavor of pork. As a complex trait, there could be multiple genes affecting IMF content in pork. Genome-wide association study is a powerful tool to detect genomic regions associated with phenotypic variations. The objectives of the present study were to identify or refine the positions of genomic regions affecting IMF, and to characterize candidate genes and pathways that may influence this trait. Of note, we identified a significant region in longissium dorsi muscle in a Duroc pig population for IMF content with PorcineSNP60 v2 BeadChip. This region spans 1.24 Mb on chromosome 8 and had been identified as a quantitative trait locus for IMF in Pietrain, Large White, Landrace, and Leicoma pigs. In this region, eight SNPs were significantly associated with IMF content. Three genes proximal to these significant SNPs were considered candidate genes, including , and . Our results confirm several previous findings and highlight several genes that may contribute to IMF variation in Duroc pigs.

关键词: Duroc pigs     genome-wide association analysis     intramuscular fat    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Genetic study and molecular breeding for high phosphorus use efficiency in maize

null

期刊论文

Aphanomyces euteiches ——加拿大豌豆生产的严重威胁

Longfei Wu,Kan-Fa Chang,Robert L. Conner,Stephen Strelkov,Rudolph Fredua-Agyeman,Sheau-Fang Hwang,David Feindel

期刊论文

免疫球蛋白G N-糖基化与代谢特征之间的双向因果关联——一项孟德尔随机化研究

孟晓妮, 曹维杰, 刘迪, Isinta Elijah Maranga, 邢薇佳, 侯海峰, 徐希柱, 宋曼殳, 王友信

期刊论文

Singularity loci of an orthogonal spherical two-degree-of-freedom parallel mechanism

Jialun YANG, Feng GAO,

期刊论文

Comments on “Determination of heterozygosity for avirulence/virulence loci through sexual hybridization

Ralf T. Voegele

期刊论文

Top-geoherbs of traditional Chinese medicine: common trait, quality characteristics and formation

Luqi Huang, Lanping Guo, Chaoyi Ma, Wei Gao, Qingjun Yuan

期刊论文

THE ROLE OF LONG-TERM EXPERIMENTS IN VALIDATING TRAIT-BASED APPROACHES TO ACHIEVING MULTIFUNCTIONALITY

期刊论文

Determination of heterozygosity for avirulence/virulence loci through sexual hybridization of

Yuan TIAN,Gangming ZHAN,Xia LU,Jie ZHAO,Lili HUANG,Zhensheng KANG

期刊论文

A computational toolbox for molecular property prediction based on quantum mechanics and quantitative

期刊论文

Functional trait differences between native bunchgrasses and the invasive grass

Huiqin HE, Thomas A. MONACO, Thomas A. JONES

期刊论文

Erratum to: Using pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR to analyze microbial communities

Husen ZHANG

期刊论文

Genome-wide association study of the backfat thickness trait in two pig populations

Dandan ZHU,Xiaolei LIU,Rothschild MAX,Zhiwu ZHANG,Shuhong ZHAO,Bin FAN

期刊论文

Estimation of photolysis half-lives of dyes in a continuous-flow system with the aid of quantitative

Davoud BEIKNEJAD,Mohammad Javad CHAICHI

期刊论文

Application of quantum chemical descriptors into quantitative structure-property relationship models

Yueping BAO, Qiuying HUANG, Wenlong WANG, Jiangjie XU, Fan JIANG, Chenghong FENG

期刊论文

Genome-wide association analysis reveals genetic loci and candidate genes associated with intramuscular

Xingwang WANG, Rongrong DING, Jianping QUAN, Linxue YANG, Ming YANG, Enqin ZHENG, Dewu LIU, Gengyuan CAI, Zhenfang WU, Jie YANG

期刊论文