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Measurement of trimethylamine concentration and evaluation of pig meat natural quality by a spectrophotometric

Mohammod Abdul HAMID,Xi WANG,Xiangdong DING,Chuduan WANG,Xingbo ZHAO

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第1卷 第3期   页码 236-241 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2014034

摘要: Pig meat off-flavor is attributed to trimethylamine (TMA) concentration, and it is considered as the precursor of the fishy off-flavor problems. In this study, TMA concentrations in pig meat were determined, and the interactions with breed and gender effects were discussed. In addition, the TMA threshold for meat off-flavor and pig meat natural quality was measured in relation to meat storage and movement, and the influential factors including the pig breed and storage time were discussed. The results indicated positive effects on the precursor of the fishy off-flavor and the TMA threshold. Native breeds were found to have lower TMA concentrations than European breeds ( <0.01), and females and castrated males had significantly lower TMA concentration than males ( <0.01), The threshold concentration of TMA when meat was classed as off-flavored was 25 μg·g , and this occurred after 35–38 h of storage. The natural qualities, such as appearance, flavor, color and overall acceptable scores declined significantly after 4 days in storage ( <0.01). It is concluded that pig meat off-flavor, breed and gender were essential factors affecting flavor for meat breeding programs, and storage time is important for pig meat natural quality.

关键词: pig meat     trimethylamine (TMA)     influential factor    

Detection of genomic signatures for pig hairlessness using high-density SNP data

Ying SU,Yi LONG,Xinjun LIAO,Huashui AI,Zhiyan ZHANG,Bin YANG,Shijun XIAO,Jianhong TANG,Wenshui XIN,Lusheng HUANG,Jun REN,Nengshui DING

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第1卷 第4期   页码 307-313 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2014039

摘要: Hair provides thermal regulation for mammals and protects the skin from wounds, bites and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and is important in adaptation to volatile environments. Pigs in nature are divided into hairy and hairless, which provide a good model for deciphering the molecular mechanisms of hairlessness. We conducted a genomic scan for genetically differentiated regions between hairy and hairless pigs using 60K SNP data, with the aim to better understand the genetic basis for the hairless phenotype in pigs. A total of 38405 SNPs in 498 animals from 36 diverse breeds were used to detect genomic signatures for pig hairlessness by estimating between-population ( ) values. Seven diversifying signatures between Yucatan hairless pig and hairy pigs were identified on pig chromosomes (SSC) 1, 3, 7, 8, 10, 11 and 16, and the biological functions of two notable genes, and were revealed. When Mexican hairless pigs were contrasted with hairypigs, strong signatures were detected on SSC1 and SSC10, which harbor two functionally plausible genes, and . KEGG pathway analysis showed a subset of overrepresented genes involved in the T cell receptor signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway and the tight junction pathways. All of these pathways may be important in local adaptability of hairless pigs. The potential mechanisms underlying the hairless phenotype in pigs are reported for the first time. and are interesting candidate genes for the hairless phenotype in Yucatan hairless and Mexico hairless pigs, respectively. , , and as well as other genes involved in the MAPK and T cell receptor signaling pathways may be important in environmental adaption by improved tolerance to UV damage in hairless pigs. These findings improve our understanding of the genetic basis for inherited hairlessness in pigs.

关键词: hairlessness     pig     selective sweeping    

Reprogramming of the pig primordial germ cells into pluripotent stem cells: a brief review

Qijing LEI, Qin PAN, Shuai YU, Na LI, Shulin CHEN, Kuldip SIDHU, Jinlian HUA

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第6卷 第1期   页码 28-32 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2018222

摘要:

Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are regarded as unipotent cells that can produce only either spermatogonia or oocytes. However, PGCs can be converted into the pluripotent state by first dedifferentiation to embryonic germ cells and then by reprogramming to induce them to become pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). These two stages can be completely implemented with mouse cells. However, authentic porcine iPSCs have not been established. Here, we discuss recent advances in the stem cell field for obtaining iPSCs from PGCs. This knowledge will provide some clues which will contribute to the regulation of reprogramming to pluripotency in farm species.

关键词: pig     pluripotent stem cells     primordial germ cells     reprogramming    

Genome-wide association study of the backfat thickness trait in two pig populations

Dandan ZHU,Xiaolei LIU,Rothschild MAX,Zhiwu ZHANG,Shuhong ZHAO,Bin FAN

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第1卷 第2期   页码 91-95 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2014005

摘要: Backfat thickness is a good predictor of carcass lean content, an economically important trait, and a main breeding target in pig improvement. In this study, the candidate genes and genomic regions associated with the tenth rib backfat thickness trait were identified in two independent pig populations, using a genome-wide association study of porcine 60K SNP genotype data applying the compressed mixed linear model (CMLM) statistical method. For each population, 30 most significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected and SNP annotation implemented using Build 10.2. In the first population, 25 significant SNPs were distributed on seven chromosomes, and SNPs on SSC1 and SSC7 showed great significance for fat deposition. The most significant SNP (ALGA0006623) was located on SSC1, upstream of the gene. In the second population, 27 significant SNPs were recognized by annotation, and 12 SNPs on SSC12 were related to fat deposition. Two haplotype blocks, M1GA0016251-MARC0075799 and ALGA0065251-MARC0014203-M1GA0016298-ALGA0065308, were detected in significant regions where the and genes were identified as contributing to fat metabolism. The results indicated that genetic mechanism regulating backfat thickness is complex, and that genome-wide associations can be affected by populations with different genetic backgrounds.

关键词: backfat thickness     SNP chip     genome-wide association study     compressed mixed linear model     pig    

Validation of

Youfen Xu, Zong Li, Ruyin Liu, Hongxia Liang, Zhisheng Yu, Hongxun Zhang

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2020年 第14卷 第4期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-020-1246-9

摘要: Abstract • Pig feces is the predominant excrement produced by animal husbandry in China. • The PF, Pig-1-BacTaqMan, and Pig-2-BacTaqMan MST assays showed better performance. • The pig-specific MST assays can contribute to managing the pig fecal pollution. In China, pig feces is the predominant source of excrement produced by animal husbandry. Improper use or direct discharge of pig feces can result in contamination of natural water systems. Microbial source tracking (MST) technology can identify the sources of fecal pollution in environmental water, and contribute to the management of pig fecal pollution by local environmental protection agencies. However, the accuracy of such assays can be context-dependent, and they have not been comprehensively evaluated under Chinese conditions. We aimed to compare the performance of five previously reported pig-specific MST assays (PF, Pig-Bac1SYBR, Pig-Bac2SYBR, Pig-1-BacTaqMan, and Pig-2-BacTaqMan, which are based on Bacteroidales 16S rRNA gene markers) and apply them in two rivers of North China. We collected a total of 173 fecal samples from pigs, cows, goats, chickens, humans, and horses across China. The PF assay optimized in this study showed outstanding qualitative performance and achieved 100% specificity and sensitivity. However, the two SYBR green qPCR assays (Pig-Bac1SYBR and Pig-Bac2SYBR) cross-reacted with most non-pig fecal samples. In contrast, both the Pig-1-BacTaqMan and Pig-2-BacTaqMan assays gave 100% specificity and sensitivity. Of these, the Pig-2-BacTaqMan assay showed higher reproducibility. Our results regarding the specificity of these pig-specific MST assays differ from those reported in Thailand, Japan, and America. Using the PF and Pig-2-BacTaqMan assays, a field test comparing the levels of pig fecal pollution in rivers near a pig farm before and after comprehensive environmental pollution governance indicated that pig fecal pollution was effectively controlled at this location.

关键词: Microbial source tracking     Pig fecal pollution     16S rRNA gene markers     Pig-specific Bacteroidales    

全球首例猪心脏移植人体手术

Sarah C. P. Williams

《工程(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第9期   页码 6-8 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2022.07.006

首次从猪体内分离鉴定人苍白杆菌 Article

谷世江, 侯瑞卿, 高盛果, 孙哲, 李向东, 翟路峰, 金云云, 朱巧艳, 廖永洪, 田克恭

《工程(英文)》 2020年 第6卷 第1期   页码 49-55 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2019.08.014

摘要:

从具有神经症状的临床发病猪的脑中分离出一株革兰氏阴性杆菌,该猪脑组织病理检查结果显示有脑膜炎。从大脑样本中成功分离的这株菌经生化反应(API 20 NE)鉴定为人苍白杆菌(O. anthropi ),并通过基因测序进行了确证。该菌株对β -内酰胺类抗生素高度耐药。用该O. anthropi 分离株对小鼠进行攻毒试验,结果感染小鼠显示出典型的脑膜炎症状。这是首次报道从猪体内分离O. anthropi,表明O. anthropi 可能具有更广泛的宿主感染谱。

关键词: 人苍白杆菌     猪脑    

Process stability and microbial community composition in pig manure and food waste anaerobic co-digesters

Conor Dennehy, Peadar G. Lawlor, Gillian E. Gardiner, Yan Jiang, Paul Cormican, Matthew S. McCabe, Xinmin Zhan

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第11卷 第3期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-017-0923-9

摘要: This study assessed the effects of reducing hydraulic retention times (HRTs) from 21 days to 10.5 days when anaerobically co-digesting pig manure and food waste. Continuously stirred tank reactors of 3.75 L working volume were operated in triplicate at 42°C. Digester HRT was progressively decreased from 21 to 15 days to 10.5 days, with an associated increase in organic loading rate (OLR) from 3.1 kg volatile solids (VS)·m ·day to 5.1 kg VS·m ·day to 7.25 kg VS·m ·day . Reducing HRT from 21 days to 15 days caused a decrease in specific methane yields and VS removal rates. Operation at a HRT of 10.5 days initially resulted in the accumulation of isobutyric acid in each reactor. High throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that this increase coincided with a shift in acidogenic bacterial populations, which most likely resulted in the increased isobutyric acid concentrations. This may in turn have caused the increase in relative abundance of bacteria, which syntrophically degrade non-acetate volatile fatty acids (VFAs) into H and CO . This, along with the increase in abundance of other syntrophic VFA oxidizers, such as suggests that VFA oxidation plays a role in digester operation at low HRTs. Reducing the HRT to below 21 days compromised the ability of the anaerobic digestion system to reduce enteric indicator organism counts below regulatory limits.

关键词: Biogas     Sequencing     Clocamonaceae     Spiorchatetes     Isobutyrate     Biosafety    

Effects of enucleation method on

Chengcheng ZHAO, Junsong SHI, Rong ZHOU, Ranbiao MAI, Lvhua LUO, Xiaoyan HE, Hongmei JI, Gengyuan CAI, Dewu LIU, Enqin ZHENG, Zhenfang WU, Zicong LI

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第6卷 第1期   页码 61-65 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2018227

摘要:

Enucleation is a crucial procedure for mammalian somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), especially for domestic animal cloning. Oocytes of domestic animals such as pigs and cattle contain dark lipid droplets that hinder localization and removal of the nucleus. Using an oocyte enucleation technique that can obtain a high enucleation rate but has minimal negative effects on the reprogramming potential of oocyte for cloning is beneficial for enhancing the outcome of SCNT. In this study, we compared the pig cloning efficiency resulting from blind aspiration-based (BA-B) enucleation and spindle imaging system-assisted (SIS-A) enucleation, and compared the pig SCNT success rate associated with BA-B enucleation and blind aspiration plus post-enucleation staining-based (BAPPS-B) enucleation. SIS-A enucleation achieved a significantly higher oocyte enucleation success rate and tended to obtain a higher full term development rate of SCNT embryos than BA-B enucleation. BAPPS-B enucleation also obtained significantly higher as well as full term development efficiency of cloned porcine embryos than BA-B enucleation. These data indicate that SIS-A and BAPPS-B enucleation are better approaches for pig SCNT than BA-B enucleation.

关键词: cloning     enucleation     pig     SCNT    

Greenhouse gas emissions from different pig manure management techniques: a critical analysis

Conor Dennehy, Peadar G. Lawlor, Yan Jiang, Gillian E. Gardiner, Sihuang Xie, Long D Nghiem, Xinmin Zhan

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第11卷 第3期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-017-0942-6

摘要: Manure management is the primary source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from pig farming, which in turn accounts for 18% of the total global GHG emissions from the livestock industry. In this review, GHG emissions (N O and CH emissions in particular) from individual pig manure (PGM) management practices (European practises in particular) are systematically analyzed and discussed. These manure management practices include manure storage, land application, solid/liquid separation, anaerobic digestion, composting and aerobic wastewater treatment. The potential reduction in net GHG emissions by changing and optimising these techniques is assessed. This review also identifies key research gaps in the literature including the effect of straw covering of liquid PGM storages, the effect of solid/liquid separation, and the effect of dry anaerobic digestion on net GHG emissions from PGM management. In addition to identifying these research gaps, several recommendations including the need to standardize units used to report GHG emissions, to account for indirect N O emissions, and to include a broader research scope by conducting detailed life cycle assessment are also discussed. Overall, anaerobic digestion and compositing to liquid and solid fractions are best PGM management practices with respect to their high GHG mitigation potential.

关键词: CH4     N2O     Storage     Anaerobic digestion     Composting     Separation    

Advances in genetic engineering of domestic animals

Shaohua WANG,Kun ZHANG,Yunping DAI

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2016年 第3卷 第1期   页码 1-10 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2016085

摘要: Global population will increase to over nine billion by 2050 with the doubling in demand for meat and milk. To overcome this challenge, it is necessary to breed highly efficient and productive livestock. Furthermore, livestock are also excellent models for human diseases and ideal bioreactors to produce pharmaceutical proteins. Thus, genetic engineering of domestic animals presents a critical and valuable tool to address these agricultural and biomedical applications. Overall, genetic engineering has evolved through three stages in history: transgenesis, gene targeting, and gene editing. Since the birth of the first transgenic pig, genetic engineering in livestock has been advancing slowly due to inherent technical limitations. A major breakthrough has been the advent of somatic cell nuclear transfer, which, for the first time, provided the technical ability to produce site-specific genome-modified domestic animals. However, the low efficiency of gene targeting events in somatic cells prohibits its wide use in agricultural and biomedical applications. Recently, rapid progress in tools and methods of genome engineering has been made, allowing genetic editing from mutation of a single base pair to the deletion of entire chromosomes. Here, we review the major advances of genetic engineering in domestic animals with emphasis placed on the introduction of latest designer nucleases.

关键词: CRISPR     TALEN     ZFN     gene editing     livestock     pig     cattle    

deletion affects the immunogenicity of a live attenuated pseudorabies virus vaccine candidate in natural pig

Shijun YAN,He YAN,Chaolin ZHANG,Tongyan WANG,Qingyuan YANG,Zhe SUN,Yan XIAO,Feifei TAN,Xiangdong LI,Kegong TIAN

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2016年 第3卷 第1期   页码 81-86 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2016088

摘要: As virulence-determining genes, and encode the small subunit and large subunit of viral ribonucleotide reductase (RR) in pseudorabies virus which have been extensively studied in mice. However, their role in pigs has not been adequately investigated. In this study, we deleted and genes based on a / / triple gene-deleted pseudorabies virus and tested its efficacy in pigs as a vaccine candidate. The rescued virus showed similar growth properties and plaque size as its parent strain. In an animal study, the virus could elicit humoral immune responses shown by generation of gB-specific antibodies and virus neutralizing antibodies. However, vaccination could not provide protection against virulent pseudorabies virus challenge since vaccinated pigs showed clinical pseudorabies-specific syndromes. The deficiency in protection may due to the generation of late and low levels of gB antibodies and virus neutralizing antibodies.

关键词: pseudorabies virus     RR1 and RR2     ribonucleotide reductase     vaccine candidate    

Antibiotic resistance genes in manure-amended paddy soils across eastern China: Occurrence and influencing factors

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第7期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-021-1499-y

摘要:

• Manure fertilization resulted in antibiotic residues and increased metal contents.

关键词: Pig manure     Antibiotics     Metals     Antibiotic resistance genes     Paddy fields    

Livestock breeding for the 21st century: the promise of the editing revolution

Chris PROUDFOOT, Gus MCFARLANE, Bruce WHITELAW, Simon LILLICO

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2020年 第7卷 第2期   页码 129-135 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2019304

摘要:

In recent years there has been a veritable explosion in the use of genome editors to create site-specific changes, both and , to the genomes of a multitude of species for both basic research and biotechnology. Livestock, which form a vital component of most societies, are no exception. While selective breeding has been hugely successful at enhancing some production traits, the rate of progress is often slow and is limited to variants that exist within the breeding population. Genome editing provides the potential to move traits between breeds, in a single generation, with no impact on existing productivity or to develop phenotypes that tackle intractable issues such as disease. As such, genome editors provide huge potential for ongoing livestock development programs in light of increased demand and disease challenge. This review will highlight some of the more notable agricultural applications of this technology in livestock.

关键词: cattle     pig     sheep     chicken     aquaculture     CRISPR    

Progress, problems and prospects of porcine pluripotent stem cells

Hanning WANG,Yangli PEI,Ning LI,Jianyong HAN

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第1卷 第1期   页码 6-15 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2014009

摘要: Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), including embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced PSCs (iPSCs), can differentiate into cells of the three germ layers, suggesting that PSCs have great potential for basic developmental biology research and wide applications for clinical medicine. Genuine ESCs and iPSCs have been derived from mice and rats, but not from livestock such as the pig—an ideal animal model for studying human disease and regenerative medicine due to similarities with human physiologic processes. Efforts to derive porcine ESCs and iPSCs have not yielded high-quality PSCs that can produce chimeras with germline transmission. Thus, exploration of the unique porcine gene regulation network of preimplantation embryonic development may permit optimization of culture systems for raising porcine PSCs. Here we summarize the recent progress in porcine PSC generation as well as the problems encountered during this progress and we depict prospects for generating porcine naive PSCs.

关键词: induced pluripotent stem cells     embryonic stem cells     pig     reprogramming    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Measurement of trimethylamine concentration and evaluation of pig meat natural quality by a spectrophotometric

Mohammod Abdul HAMID,Xi WANG,Xiangdong DING,Chuduan WANG,Xingbo ZHAO

期刊论文

Detection of genomic signatures for pig hairlessness using high-density SNP data

Ying SU,Yi LONG,Xinjun LIAO,Huashui AI,Zhiyan ZHANG,Bin YANG,Shijun XIAO,Jianhong TANG,Wenshui XIN,Lusheng HUANG,Jun REN,Nengshui DING

期刊论文

Reprogramming of the pig primordial germ cells into pluripotent stem cells: a brief review

Qijing LEI, Qin PAN, Shuai YU, Na LI, Shulin CHEN, Kuldip SIDHU, Jinlian HUA

期刊论文

Genome-wide association study of the backfat thickness trait in two pig populations

Dandan ZHU,Xiaolei LIU,Rothschild MAX,Zhiwu ZHANG,Shuhong ZHAO,Bin FAN

期刊论文

Validation of

Youfen Xu, Zong Li, Ruyin Liu, Hongxia Liang, Zhisheng Yu, Hongxun Zhang

期刊论文

全球首例猪心脏移植人体手术

Sarah C. P. Williams

期刊论文

首次从猪体内分离鉴定人苍白杆菌

谷世江, 侯瑞卿, 高盛果, 孙哲, 李向东, 翟路峰, 金云云, 朱巧艳, 廖永洪, 田克恭

期刊论文

Process stability and microbial community composition in pig manure and food waste anaerobic co-digesters

Conor Dennehy, Peadar G. Lawlor, Gillian E. Gardiner, Yan Jiang, Paul Cormican, Matthew S. McCabe, Xinmin Zhan

期刊论文

Effects of enucleation method on

Chengcheng ZHAO, Junsong SHI, Rong ZHOU, Ranbiao MAI, Lvhua LUO, Xiaoyan HE, Hongmei JI, Gengyuan CAI, Dewu LIU, Enqin ZHENG, Zhenfang WU, Zicong LI

期刊论文

Greenhouse gas emissions from different pig manure management techniques: a critical analysis

Conor Dennehy, Peadar G. Lawlor, Yan Jiang, Gillian E. Gardiner, Sihuang Xie, Long D Nghiem, Xinmin Zhan

期刊论文

Advances in genetic engineering of domestic animals

Shaohua WANG,Kun ZHANG,Yunping DAI

期刊论文

deletion affects the immunogenicity of a live attenuated pseudorabies virus vaccine candidate in natural pig

Shijun YAN,He YAN,Chaolin ZHANG,Tongyan WANG,Qingyuan YANG,Zhe SUN,Yan XIAO,Feifei TAN,Xiangdong LI,Kegong TIAN

期刊论文

Antibiotic resistance genes in manure-amended paddy soils across eastern China: Occurrence and influencing factors

期刊论文

Livestock breeding for the 21st century: the promise of the editing revolution

Chris PROUDFOOT, Gus MCFARLANE, Bruce WHITELAW, Simon LILLICO

期刊论文

Progress, problems and prospects of porcine pluripotent stem cells

Hanning WANG,Yangli PEI,Ning LI,Jianyong HAN

期刊论文