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Plasma transthyretin is a nutritional biomarker in human morbidities

《医学前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第4期   页码 540-550 doi: 10.1007/s11684-022-0940-3

摘要: Transthyretin (TTR) is a small liver-secreted plasma protein that shows close correlations with changes in lean body mass (LBM) during the entire human lifespan and agglomerates the bulk of nitrogen (N)-containing substrates, hence constituting the cornerstone of body building. Amino acids (AAs) dietary restriction causes inhibition of TTR production and impairs the accretion of LBM reserves. Inflammatory disorders result in cytokine-induced abrogation of TTR synthesis and urinary leakage of nitrogenous catabolites. Taken together, the data indicate that malnutrition and inflammation may similarly suppress the production of TTR through distinct and unrelated pathophysiological mechanisms while operating in concert to downsize LBM stores. The hepatic synthesis of TTR integrates both machineries, acting as a marker of reduced LBM resources still available for defense and repair processes. TTR operates as a universal surrogate analyte that allows for the grading of residual LBM capacity to reflect disease burden. Measurement of TTR is a simple, rapid, and inexpensive micro-method that may be reproduced on a daily basis, hence ideally suited for the follow-up of the most intricated clinical situations and as a reliable predictor of any morbidity outcome.

关键词: lean body mass     nutritional status     transthyretin     malnutrition     inflammation     amyloidosis    

Advancement in genetic variants conferring obesity susceptibility from genome-wide association studies

null

《医学前沿(英文)》 2015年 第9卷 第2期   页码 146-161 doi: 10.1007/s11684-014-0373-8

摘要:

Obesity prevalence has increased in recent years. Lifestyle change fuels obesity, but genetic factors cause more than 50% of average variations in obesity. The advent of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has hastened the progress of polygenic obesity research. As of this writing, more than 73 obesity susceptibility loci have been identified in ethnic groups through GWAS. The identified loci explain only 2% to 4% of obesity heritability, thereby indicating that a large proportion of loci remain undiscovered. Thus, the next step is to identify and confirm novel loci, which may exhibit smaller effects and lower allele frequencies than established loci. However, achieving these tasks has been difficult for researchers. GWAS help researchers discover the causal loci. Moreover, numerous biological studies have been performed on the polygenic effects on obesity, such as studies on fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO), but the role of these polygenic effects in the mechanism of obesity remains unclear. Thus, obesity-causing variations should be identified, and insights into the biology of polygenic effects on obesity are needed.

关键词: obesity     genetics     genome-wide association studies     body mass index     fat mass- and obesity-associated gene    

Value of waist circumference, body mass index and hyperinsulinaemia in identifying metabolic syndrome

TIAN Hui, FANG Fusheng, SHAO Yinghong, LI Chunlin, LI Jian, YAN Shuangtong, ZHONG Wenwen, LI Yanyan, SUN Jingfang, CAO Xiutang, PAN Changyu, LU Juming, DOU Jingtao, MA Fangling, ZHOU Xiaoman

《医学前沿(英文)》 2008年 第2卷 第4期   页码 400-405 doi: 10.1007/s11684-008-0077-z

摘要: To investigate the significance of waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI) and hyperinsulinaemia A (HIns) in evaluating metabolic syndrome (MS). Clinical data from middle-aged and senile individuals (middle-senile group) who received glucose tolerance test after diabetes mellitus screening and a group of subjects who received annual oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for diabetes mellitus screening (adult group) were collected. Data were collected by use of special messengers, input into a computer data base and analyzed using SAS 5.0 software by expert staff. Abnormal WC and BMI were determined according to International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Chinese Diabetes Society (CDS) criteria. HIns was ascertained if fasting insulin (FIns) ≥ 15 mU/L, and/or 2-hour insulin after a glucose challenge was (2hPIns) ≥ 80 mU/L. Abnormalities in WC, BMI and HIns were all found to be risk factors for abnormal glucose metabolism, hypertension and dyslipidemia. In the middle-senile group, the abnormality rate of WC and HIns as well as the overall insulin level were significantly higher than those in the adult group. The abnormality rate of BMI was higher in the adult group, and HIns was mostly seen in impaired glucose test (IGT) and normal glucose test (NGT). The concordance rate of WC and BMI diagnostic criteria for evaluating obesity in the middle-senile and adult groups were 77.5% and 74.3%, respectively. When only the WC criterion was used for evaluating the existence of insulin resistance, there was a 28.2% missed diagnosis rate for MS patients. WC, BMI and HIns were all risk factors for abnormal glucose metabolism, hypertension and dyslipidemia. There was differing prevalence in the different populations. The combination of WC, BMI and HIns might be more helpful in identifying MS at early stage.

关键词: mU/L     prevalence     Abnormal     dyslipidemia     computer    

Early-life famine exposure, adulthood obesity patterns, and risk of low-energy fracture

《医学前沿(英文)》 doi: 10.1007/s11684-023-1023-9

摘要: Malnutrition in early life increases the risk of osteoporosis, but the association of early-life undernutrition combined with adulthood obesity patterns with low-energy fracture remains unknown. This study included 5323 community-dwelling subjects aged ≥40 years from China. Early-life famine exposure was identified based on the participants’ birth dates. General obesity was assessed using the body mass index (BMI), and abdominal obesity was evaluated with the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Low-energy fracture was defined as fracture occurring after the age of 40 typically caused by falls from standing height or lower. Compared to the nonexposed group, the group with fetal, childhood, and adolescence famine exposure was associated with an increased risk of fracture in women with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of 3.55 (1.57–8.05), 3.90 (1.57–9.71), and 3.53 (1.05–11.88), respectively, but not in men. Significant interactions were observed between fetal famine exposure and general obesity with fracture among women (P for interaction = 0.0008). Furthermore, compared with the groups with normal BMI and WHR, the group of women who underwent fetal famine exposure and had both general and abdominal obesity had the highest risk of fracture (OR, 95% CI: 3.32, 1.17–9.40). These results indicate that early-life famine exposure interacts with adulthood general obesity and significantly increases the risk of low-energy fracture later in life in women.

关键词: famine     obesity     body mass index     waist-to-hip ratio     low-energy fracture    

Lean Product Development—Faster, Better … Cleaner?

Geert Letens

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2015年 第2卷 第1期   页码 52-59 doi: 10.15302/J-FEM-2015007

摘要: To address this challenge, lean product development has emerged to become the leading improvement methodology for companies toward the creation of a competitive advantage on innovation and technology leadership. While lean product development has its origin in the best practice studies of Japanese car manufacturers such as Toyota, it has been further elaborated in defence and aerospace organizations over the last two decades, and recently empirical evidence has become available for successful introductions in sectors different from the traditionally-studied environments. The primary purpose of this work is to untangle the fuzziness that still surrounds lean product development and to ground the key aspects of lean product development based on insights from six studies published in a special issue of the on this topic. This demonstrates how better and faster product development can be achieved through the integration of lean principles with the best of more traditional new product development (NPD) practices, into a holistic system that can be characterised by value-focused and risk-based decision making, the socio-technical integration of people and process, improved project, pipeline and portfolio management, optimized knowledge management, and the creation of a learning organization. Unfortunately, while the increasing global competition offers the potential to improve the quality of life for many, the spirit of faster, better, and cheaper also threatens to endanger the future of our planet as a whole. As the majority of a product’s social and ecological impacts are committed in the design phase, it, therefore, seems imperative to investigate the integration of lean product development and eco-design principles. As a result, this work also explores the symbiosis of both approaches through the identification of tools and methods that can support the triple bottom-line goals for a sustainable future of life and business.

关键词: lean product development     sustainability engineering     responsible design    

Proposing a “lean and green” framework for equipment cost analysis in construction

Ming LU, Nicolas DIAZ, Monjurul HASAN

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2019年 第6卷 第3期   页码 384-394 doi: 10.1007/s42524-019-0033-4

摘要: One limitation of previous productivity-driven research on equipment selection and operation simulation lies in the fact that the green aspects of construction activities have been largely neglected in analysis of costefficiency of construction operations. On the other hand, studies attempting to measure greenhouse gas emission due to construction activities have yet to develop a methodology that correlates their findings and implications with construction productivity. In order to address the immediate need for improving the sustainability performance of construction projects, it is imperative for the construction industry to evaluate greenhouse gas emission as a cost factor in construction planning, equipment selection, and cost estimating. In this context, this paper formalizes an integrative framework for equipment cost analysis based on the concepts of lean construction and green construction, aimed to guide the selection of appropriate construction equipment considering exhaust emission and productivity performance at the same time. The framework is elaborated in earthwork construction in order to evaluate the impact of greenhouse gas emission in estimating equipment hourly rates and assessing greenness and sustainability for alternative equipment options.

关键词: green construction     lean construction     equipment     simulation     earthwork construction     sustainability     productivity    

基于就医人群的中国多囊卵巢综合征女性的临床表型和治疗结局—— 身体质量指数与地理分布的影响 Article

高敬书, 马红丽, 王宇, 杨新鸣, 曹义娟, 张蓓, 韩丛辉, 吴效科

《工程(英文)》 2021年 第7卷 第2期   页码 170-177 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2020.12.006

摘要:

遗传因素、生活方式和环境因素与多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)的发生相关。身体质量指数(BMI)的增加会加剧生殖及代谢障碍,降低PCOS女性的生育能力。本文对在中国大陆21个研究中心开展的一项大样本、多中心、随机对照试验进行二次分析。共有1000名PCOS女性参加本试验。其中,998名PCOS女性被纳入分析。BMI增加与月经失调加剧、高睾酮水平、高代谢综合征患病率以及生活质量降低相关。BMI正常组、超重组和肥胖组的女性人均排卵率分别为83.0%、78.2%和63.6%(P < 0.001),活产率分别为23.6%、18.1%和15.3%(P = 0.030)。与中国南方的PCOS患者相比,北方的PCOS患者生殖结局较差,血糖和血脂代谢不良,运动量少,以及总排卵率更低(81.2% vs 74.8%,绝对差:6.4%,95%置信区间:1.2%~11.5%)。结果显示,中国南北方的汉族PCOS女性具有典型的表型特征。与生活在中国南方的女性相比,在同样的干预措施下,中国北方的女性BMI更高,糖脂代谢障碍更严重,临床结局更差。表型特征及排卵的差异可以通过BMI差异加以解释。

关键词: 多囊卵巢综合征     体重指数     表型     中国队列     地理分布    

Prevention and treatment of pancreatic fistula after pancreatic body and tail resection: current status

Li Jiang, Deng Ning, Xiaoping Chen

《医学前沿(英文)》 2020年 第14卷 第3期   页码 251-261 doi: 10.1007/s11684-019-0727-3

摘要: Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is the most common and critical complication after pancreatic body and tail resection. How to effectively reduce the occurrence of pancreatic fistula and conduct timely treatment thereafter is an urgent clinical issue to be solved. Recent research standardized the definition of pancreatic fistula and stressed the correlation between POPF classification and patient prognosis. According to the literature, identification of the risk factors for pancreatic fistula contributed to lowering the rate of the complication. Appropriate management of the pancreatic stump and perioperative treatment are of great significance to reduce the rate of POPF in clinical practice. After the occurrence of POPF, the treatment of choice should be determined according to the classification of the pancreatic fistula. However, despite the progress and promising treatment approaches, POPF remains to be a clinical issue that warrants further studies in the future.

关键词: pancreatic fistula     pancreatic body and tail resection     distal pancreatectomy    

Analyzing the distinguishing factors that affect childhood obesity in South Korea

So Jung Yang, Hun-Sung Kim, Kun-Ho Yoon

《医学前沿(英文)》 2018年 第12卷 第6期   页码 707-716 doi: 10.1007/s11684-018-0660-x

摘要:

Understanding obesity in children is crucial because it can lead to adulthood obesity and result in fatal chronic diseases. Distinctive factors associated with obesity in adults have been described, but distinctive factors related to children remain unclear. We analyzed the correlation between the percentage of body mass index and lifestyle habits by conducting surveys on physical, nutritional, and psychological factors, and we used annual physical examination data to compare different traits among elementary school students (n = 197) and middle school students (n = 461). Our study revealed that the computing hours in elementary school students with overweight and obesity were significantly correlated with the percentage of body mass index (r = 0.29 on school days and r = 0.35 on days off, all P<0.05). No statistically significant difference was found (all P>0.05) in the computing hours of middle school students with overweight and obesity. Childhood obesity can cause depression and reduce children’s quality of life because of their distorted body perception. In conclusion, physical factors directly affecting childhood obesity and psychological and environmental factors surrounding a child should be considered.

关键词: screen time     quality of life     eating habits     childhood obesity     percentage of body mass index    

Hotspots Evolution and Frontier Analysis of Lean Construction Research—Integrated Scientometric Analysis

Qing-hua He,Ge Wang

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2015年 第2卷 第2期   页码 141-147 doi: 10.15302/J-FEM-2015023

摘要: To develop a lean and green construction industry, Lean Construction (LC) is proposed as a new construction production method to improve the efficient use of resources and the value of construction supply chains, which has received increasing research concerns from scholars and practitioners. Based on related articles covered by the Web of Science and Scopus databases between 1995 and 2014, this study conducts a scientometric analysis. The analysis identifies four core topics in existing research, including: Last Planner System (LPS); production control theory; improvement and evaluation of productivity; and principle of value. Three major directions of LC research: greening LC; Building Information Modeling (BIM) based LC; and lean safety management, are also proposed. Lastly, several recommendations for future LC research and practice are provided in the literature review.

关键词: Lean Construction     green industry     efficient use    

Experimental study of stratified lean burn characteristics on a dual injection gasoline engine

Chun XIA, Tingyu ZHAO, Junhua FANG, Lei ZHU, Zhen HUANG

《能源前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第6期   页码 900-915 doi: 10.1007/s11708-021-0812-6

摘要: Due to increasingly stringent fuel consumption and emission regulation, improving thermal efficiency and reducing particulate matter emissions are two main issues for next generation gasoline engine. Lean burn mode could greatly reduce pumping loss and decrease the fuel consumption of gasoline engines, although the burning rate is decreased by higher diluted intake air. In this study, dual injection stratified combustion mode is used to accelerate the burning rate of lean burn by increasing the fuel concentration near the spark plug. The effects of engine control parameters such as the excess air coefficient (Lambda), direct injection (DI) ratio, spark interval with DI, and DI timing on combustion, fuel consumption, gaseous emissions, and particulate emissions of a dual injection gasoline engine are studied. It is shown that the lean burn limit can be extended to Lambda= 1.8 with a low compression ratio of 10, while the fuel consumption can be obviously improved at Lambda= 1.4. There exists a spark window for dual injection stratified lean burn mode, in which the spark timing has a weak effect on combustion. With optimization of the control parameters, the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) decreases 9.05% more than that of original stoichiometric combustion with DI as 2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) at a 2000 r/min engine speed. The NOx emissions before three-way catalyst (TWC) are 71.31% lower than that of the original engine while the particle number (PN) is 81.45% lower than the original engine. The dual injection stratified lean burn has a wide range of applications which can effectively reduce fuel consumption and particulate emissions. The BSFC reduction rate is higher than 5% and the PN reduction rate is more than 50% with the speed lower than 2400 r/min and the load lower than 5 bar.

关键词: dual injection     stratified lean burn     gasoline engine     particulate matter emission     combustion analysis    

痩肉猪育种的发展及展望

熊远著

《中国工程科学》 2000年 第2卷 第9期   页码 42-46

摘要:

文章对世界的猪育种过程特别是中国的瘦肉猪育种,从猪种资源调査到优良猪种引进与新品种选育,专门化品系选育与配套利用,种猪测定等方面进行了回顾,就分子生物技术在猪遗传育种中的应用及取得的成果作了简要概述。展望了21世纪瘦肉猪育种的目标,并就新品种培育、猪种资源保存、完善种猪测定体系和加速分子生物技术在猪育种中的应用提出了建议。

关键词:     瘦肉型     育种    

Laboratory experiment on using non-floating body to generate electrical energy from water waves

Arunachalam AMARKARTHIK, Srinivasan CHANDRASEKARAN, Karuppan SIVAKUMAR, Harender SINHMAR

《能源前沿(英文)》 2012年 第6卷 第4期   页码 361-365 doi: 10.1007/s11708-012-0210-1

摘要: This paper describes an innovative method of using a non-buoyant body to harness ocean waves. All the point absorbers are buoyant in nature and move up due to buoyancy and come down because of gravity. The point absorbers are designed to move along the waves to make the device efficient. These devices face excessive stress during the rough weather on account of the extreme motion of waves and cause the total device failure. The present study shows that using a non-buoyant body for conventional point absorber principle is much efficient and safer than any other device proposed till today. A small scale wave energy converter with non-buoyant body was designed, fabricated and tested in small scale wave maker. An electrical generator was coupled with the device to generate electrical energy from harnessed waves. The generator was electrically loaded and the generated power was measured. It was found from the experiments that the proposed device showed a significant improvement in electricity generation and safety during extreme conditions. In addition to the electricity generation, the characteristics of the device were also studied by using various wave and device parameters.

关键词: ocean wave energy     point absorbers     heaving body     non-floating object     heave response ratio     electrical energy generation    

Selective catalytic reduction of NOx from exhaust of lean-burn engine over Ag-Al2O3/cordierite catalyst

LI Junhua, KANG Shoufang, FU Lixin, HAO Jiming

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2007年 第1卷 第2期   页码 143-146 doi: 10.1007/s11783-007-0025-1

摘要: A highly effective Ag-AlO catalyst was prepared using the sol-gel method, and characterized by surface area using nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The catalyst performance was tested on a real lean-burn gasoline engine. Only unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the exhaust were directly used as reductant (without any external reductant), the maximum NO conversion could only reach 40% at 450?C. When an external reductant, ethanol was added, the average NO conversion was greater than 60%. At exhaust gas temperature range of 350 500?C, the maximum NO conversion reached about 90%. CO and HC could be efficiently oxidized with Pt-AO oxidation catalyst placed at the end of SCR converter. However, NO conversion drastically decreased because of the oxidation of some intermediates to NO again. The possible reaction mechanism was proposed as two typical processes, nitration, and reduction in HC-SCR over Ag-AlO.

关键词: lean-burn gasoline     external reductant     nitrogen adsorption     conversion     catalyst performance    

Lightweight design of an electric bus body structure with analytical target cascading

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第18卷 第1期 doi: 10.1007/s11465-022-0718-y

摘要: Lightweight designs of new-energy vehicles can reduce energy consumption, thereby improving driving mileage. In this study, a lightweight design of a newly developed multi-material electric bus body structure is examined in combination with analytical target cascading (ATC). By proposing an ATC-based two-level optimization strategy, the original lightweight design problem is decomposed into the system level and three subsystem levels. The system-level optimization model is related to mass minimization with all the structural modal frequency constraints, while each subsystem-level optimization model is related to the sub-structural performance objective with sub-structure mass constraints. To enhance the interaction between two-level systems, each subsystem-level objective is reformulated as a penalty-based function coordinated with the system-level objective. To guarantee the accuracy of the model-based analysis, a finite element model is validated through experimental modal test. A sequential quadratic programming algorithm is used to address the defined optimization problem for effective convergence. Compared with the initial design, the total mass is reduced by 49 kg, and the torsional stiffness is increased by 17.5%. In addition, the obtained design is also validated through strength analysis.

关键词: electric vehicle     body in white (BIW)     lightweight     analytical target cascading (ATC)    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Plasma transthyretin is a nutritional biomarker in human morbidities

期刊论文

Advancement in genetic variants conferring obesity susceptibility from genome-wide association studies

null

期刊论文

Value of waist circumference, body mass index and hyperinsulinaemia in identifying metabolic syndrome

TIAN Hui, FANG Fusheng, SHAO Yinghong, LI Chunlin, LI Jian, YAN Shuangtong, ZHONG Wenwen, LI Yanyan, SUN Jingfang, CAO Xiutang, PAN Changyu, LU Juming, DOU Jingtao, MA Fangling, ZHOU Xiaoman

期刊论文

Early-life famine exposure, adulthood obesity patterns, and risk of low-energy fracture

期刊论文

Lean Product Development—Faster, Better … Cleaner?

Geert Letens

期刊论文

Proposing a “lean and green” framework for equipment cost analysis in construction

Ming LU, Nicolas DIAZ, Monjurul HASAN

期刊论文

基于就医人群的中国多囊卵巢综合征女性的临床表型和治疗结局—— 身体质量指数与地理分布的影响

高敬书, 马红丽, 王宇, 杨新鸣, 曹义娟, 张蓓, 韩丛辉, 吴效科

期刊论文

Prevention and treatment of pancreatic fistula after pancreatic body and tail resection: current status

Li Jiang, Deng Ning, Xiaoping Chen

期刊论文

Analyzing the distinguishing factors that affect childhood obesity in South Korea

So Jung Yang, Hun-Sung Kim, Kun-Ho Yoon

期刊论文

Hotspots Evolution and Frontier Analysis of Lean Construction Research—Integrated Scientometric Analysis

Qing-hua He,Ge Wang

期刊论文

Experimental study of stratified lean burn characteristics on a dual injection gasoline engine

Chun XIA, Tingyu ZHAO, Junhua FANG, Lei ZHU, Zhen HUANG

期刊论文

痩肉猪育种的发展及展望

熊远著

期刊论文

Laboratory experiment on using non-floating body to generate electrical energy from water waves

Arunachalam AMARKARTHIK, Srinivasan CHANDRASEKARAN, Karuppan SIVAKUMAR, Harender SINHMAR

期刊论文

Selective catalytic reduction of NOx from exhaust of lean-burn engine over Ag-Al2O3/cordierite catalyst

LI Junhua, KANG Shoufang, FU Lixin, HAO Jiming

期刊论文

Lightweight design of an electric bus body structure with analytical target cascading

期刊论文