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Performance of ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) with different surface roughening methods

Ning JIN, Bangfeng WANG, Kan BIAN, Qi CHEN, Ke XIONG,

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2009年 第4卷 第4期   页码 430-435 doi: 10.1007/s11465-009-0053-6

摘要: Based on permeation and double chemical reduction technology, this paper researches the manufacture of Pt-ionic polymer metal composites (IPMC) and the effect of three types of surface roughening methods on the manufacture and performance of IPMC. The roughening methods include manual polishing, sanding machine polishing, and plasma surface treatment. The appearance and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) features, electro-active deformation and surface resistance characteristics of these IPMC specimens were obtained and compared through specimen tests. The results of the tests indicate that surface roughening technology obviously influences the performance of IPMC. The uniformity and compactness of the metal deposited on the surface and inside the Nafion film are improved by improving surface roughening uniformity. However, the electro-active deformation capability and surface resistance of the specimens decrease at the same time. There is an approximate linear increase relationship between the driving voltage and the bending deformation of the IPMC specimen within a certain voltage range. Under the same specimen dimension, constraints, and driving voltage (3V), the maximum electro-active bending deformation angles of the specimens are about 60°, 45°, and 15° for manual polishing, sanding machine roughening, and plasma treatment, respectively.

关键词: ionic polymer metal composites (IPMC)     surface roughening     scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyze     actuator     electroless plating    

Kinetic roughening transition and missing regime transition of melt crystallized polybutene-1 tetragonal

Motoi YAMASHITA

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2009年 第3卷 第2期   页码 125-134 doi: 10.1007/s11705-009-0001-3

摘要: The morphology and lateral growth rate of polybutene-1 ( -PB1) have been investigated for crystallization from the melt over a wide range of crystallization temperatures from 50 to 110°C. The morphology of -PB1 crystals is a rounded shape at crystallization temperatures lower than 85°C, while lamellar single crystals possess faceted morphology at higher crystallization temperatures. The kinetic roughening transition occurs around 85°C. The nucleation and growth mechanism for crystallization does not work below 85°C, since the growth face is rough. However, the growth rate shows the supercooling dependence derived from the nucleation and growth mechanism. The nucleation theory seems still to work even for rough surface growth. Possible mechanisms for the crystal growth of this polymer are discussed.

关键词: isotactic polybutene-1     tetragonal phase (form Ⅱ)     melt crystallization     growth rate     kinetic roughening     morphology    

Cell surface protein engineering for high-performance whole-cell catalysts

Hajime Nakatani,Katsutoshi Hori

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第11卷 第1期   页码 46-57 doi: 10.1007/s11705-017-1609-3

摘要: Cell surface protein engineering facilitated by accumulation of information on genome and protein structure involves heterologous production and modification of cell surface proteins using genetic engineering, and is important for the development of high-performance whole-cell catalysts. In this field, cell surface display is a major technology by exposing target proteins, such as enzymes, on the cell surface using a carrier protein. The target proteins are fused to the carrier proteins that transport and tether them to the cell surface, as well as to a secretion signal. This paper reviews cell surface display systems for prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells from the perspective of carrier proteins, which determine the number of displayed molecules, and the localization, size, and direction ( or terminal anchoring) of the passengers. We also discuss advanced methods for displaying multiple enzymes and a new method for the immobilization of whole-cell catalysts using adhesive surface proteins.

关键词: cell surface engineering     surface display     whole-cell catalysts     bioprocess    

An Exploration of Surface Integrity Remanufacturing for Aeroengine Components

Qiao Xiang,Yong He,Ting-hong Hou

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2016年 第3卷 第2期   页码 107-114 doi: 10.15302/J-FEM-2016025

摘要: Surface integrity is the major factor impacting on the operation quality, service life and reliability of the aeroengine components. The surface integrity of aeroengine component is damaged by the failures such as crack, deformation, oxidation, corrosion, erosion, and microstructural degeneration. It adopts advanced remanufacturing technologies to restore or improve the surface integrity and regenerate these high value parts. This paper firstly puts forward the concept, namely surface integrity remanufacturing for aeroengine components, and its connotation. The key remanufacturing technologies have been developed to repair the components with surface damages. Ultimately, some application examples of surface integrity remanufacturing technologies as well as their effects in aeroengine maintenance are introduced. The discarded components have been reused and their service lives have been extended and their reliability has been increased by implementing surface integrity remanufacturing. It has realized “The Repaired Components Outpacing the New Ones”, material saving, energy saving, and emission reduction.

关键词: aeroengine component     surface integrity     remanufacturing     surface integrity remanufacturing    

Review on mechanism and process of surface polishing using lasers

Arun KRISHNAN, Fengzhou FANG

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第14卷 第3期   页码 299-319 doi: 10.1007/s11465-019-0535-0

摘要: Laser polishing is a technology of smoothening the surface of various materials with highly intense laser beams. When these beams impact on the material surface to be polished, the surface starts to be melted due to the high temperature. The melted material is then relocated from the ‘peaks to valleys’ under the multidirectional action of surface tension. By varying the process parameters such as beam intensity, energy density, spot diameter, and feed rate, different rates of surface roughness can be achieved. High precision polishing of surfaces can be done using laser process. Currently, laser polishing has extended its applications from photonics to molds as well as bio-medical sectors. Conventional polishing techniques have many drawbacks such as less capability of polishing freeform surfaces, environmental pollution, long processing time, and health hazards for the operators. Laser polishing on the other hand eliminates all the mentioned drawbacks and comes as a promising technology that can be relied for smoothening of initial topography of the surfaces irrespective of the complexity of the surface. Majority of the researchers performed laser polishing on materials such as steel, titanium, and its alloys because of its low cost and reliability. This article gives a detailed overview of the laser polishing mechanism by explaining various process parameters briefly to get a better understanding about the entire polishing process. The advantages and applications are also explained clearly to have a good knowledge about the importance of laser polishing in the future.

关键词: laser polishing     surface roughness     process parameters     mechanism    

Tribological study on the surface modification of metal-on-polymer bioimplants

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第17卷 第2期 doi: 10.1007/s11465-022-0682-6

摘要: The tribological performance of artificial joints is regarded as the main factor of the lifespan of implanted prostheses. The relationship between surface roughness and coefficient of friction (COF) under dry and lubricated conditions is studied. Results show that under dry test, friction coefficient is not reduced all the time with a decrease in surface roughness. On the contrary, a threshold of roughness value is observed, and frictional force increases again below this value. This critical value lies between 40 and 100 nm in Sa (roughness). This phenomenon is due to the transfer of friction mechanisms from abrasion to adhesion. Under wet test, COF always decreases with reduction in surface roughness. This result is mainly attributed to the existence of a thin layer of lubricant film that prevents the intimate contact of two articulating surfaces, thus greatly alleviating adhesion friction. Furthermore, surface texturing technology is successful in improving the corresponding tribological performance by decreasing friction force and mitigating surface deterioration. The even-distribution mode of texturing patterns is most suitable for artificial joints. By obtaining the optimal surface roughness and applying texturing technology, the tribological performance of polymer-based bioimplants can be greatly enhanced.

关键词: artificial joints     surface roughness     friction     surface texturing    

Development of surface reconstruction algorithms for optical interferometric measurement

Dongxu WU, Fengzhou FANG

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第16卷 第1期   页码 1-31 doi: 10.1007/s11465-020-0602-6

摘要: Optical interferometry is a powerful tool for measuring and characterizing areal surface topography in precision manufacturing. A variety of instruments based on optical interferometry have been developed to meet the measurement needs in various applications, but the existing techniques are simply not enough to meet the ever-increasing requirements in terms of accuracy, speed, robustness, and dynamic range, especially in on-line or on-machine conditions. This paper provides an in-depth perspective of surface topography reconstruction for optical interferometric measurements. Principles, configurations, and applications of typical optical interferometers with different capabilities and limitations are presented. Theoretical background and recent advances of fringe analysis algorithms, including coherence peak sensing and phase-shifting algorithm, are summarized. The new developments in measurement accuracy and repeatability, noise resistance, self-calibration ability, and computational efficiency are discussed. This paper also presents the new challenges that optical interferometry techniques are facing in surface topography measurement. To address these challenges, advanced techniques in image stitching, on-machine measurement, intelligent sampling, parallel computing, and deep learning are explored to improve the functional performance of optical interferometry in future manufacturing metrology.

关键词: surface topography     measurement     optical interferometry     coherence envelope     phase-shifting algorithm    

Hysteretic behavior of cambered surface steel tube damper: Theoretical and experimental research

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第4期   页码 606-624 doi: 10.1007/s11709-023-0925-6

摘要: A novel cambered surface steel tube damper (CSTD) with a cambered surface steel tube and two concave connecting plates is proposed herein. The steel tube is the main energy dissipation component and comprises a weakened segment in the middle, a transition segment, and an embedded segment. It is believed that during an earthquake, the middle weakened segment of the CSTD will be damaged, whereas the reliability of the end connection is ensured. Theoretical and experimental studies are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed CSTD. Formulas for the initial stiffness and yield force of the CSTD are proposed. Subsequently, two CSTD specimens with different steel tube thicknesses are fabricated and tested under cyclic quasi-static loads. The result shows that the CSTD yields a stable hysteretic response and affords excellent energy dissipation. A parametric study is conducted to investigate the effects of the steel tube height, diameter, and thickness on the seismic performance of the CSTD. Compared with equal-stiffness design steel tube dampers, the CSTD exhibits better energy dissipation performance, more stable hysteretic response, and better uniformity in plastic deformation distributions.

关键词: cambered surface steel tube damper     energy dissipation capacity     finite element model     hysteretic performance     parametric study    

Materials and surface engineering to control bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation: A review of recent

Huan GU, Dacheng REN

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第8卷 第1期   页码 20-33 doi: 10.1007/s11705-014-1412-3

摘要: Bacterial adhesion to surfaces and subsequent biofilm formation are a leading cause of chronic infections and biofouling. These processes are highly sensitive to environmental factors and present a challenge to research using traditional approaches with uncontrolled surfaces. Recent advances in materials research and surface engineering have brought exciting opportunities to pattern bacterial cell clusters and to obtain synthetic biofilms with well-controlled cell density and morphology of cell clusters. In this article, we will review the recent achievements in this field and comment on the future directions.

关键词: surface engineering     materials     bacterial adhesion     biofilm     control     review    

Dynamic response surface methodology using Lasso regression for organic pharmaceutical synthesis

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第2期   页码 221-236 doi: 10.1007/s11705-021-2061-y

摘要: To study the dynamic behavior of a process, time-resolved data are collected at different time instants during each of a series of experiments, which are usually designed with the design of experiments or the design of dynamic experiments methodologies. For utilizing such time-resolved data to model the dynamic behavior, dynamic response surface methodology (DRSM), a data-driven modeling method, has been proposed. Two approaches can be adopted in the estimation of the model parameters: stepwise regression, used in several of previous publications, and Lasso regression, which is newly incorporated in this paper for the estimation of DRSM models. Here, we show that both approaches yield similarly accurate models, while the computational time of Lasso is on average two magnitude smaller. Two case studies are performed to show the advantages of the proposed method. In the first case study, where the concentrations of different species are modeled directly, DRSM method provides more accurate models compared to the models in the literature. The second case study, where the reaction extents are modeled instead of the species concentrations, illustrates the versatility of the DRSM methodology. Therefore, DRSM with Lasso regression can provide faster and more accurate data-driven models for a variety of organic synthesis datasets.

关键词: data-driven modeling     pharmaceutical organic synthesis     Lasso regression     dynamic response surface methodology    

Improved blending strategy for membrane modification by virtue of surface segregation using surface-tailored

Shuai Liang, Peng Gao, Xiaoqi Gao, Kang Xiao, Xia Huang

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2016年 第10卷 第6期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-016-0875-5

摘要: Two types of amphiphilic nanoparticles were prepared via silanization reaction. Amphiphilic nanoparticles tend to protrude from membrane matrix by segregation. Blending with amphiphilic nanoparticles further enhances membrane hydrophilicity. Excessive silanization cause adverse effect on blending efficiency. Membrane modification is one of the most feasible and effective solutions to membrane fouling problem which tenaciously hampered the further augmentation of membrane separation technology. Blending modification with nanoparticles (NPs), owing to the convenience of being incorporated in established membrane production lines, possesses an advantageous viability in practical applications. However, the existing blending strategy suffers from a low utilization efficiency due to NP encasement by membrane matrix. The current study proposed an improved blending modification approach with amphiphilic NPs (aNPs), which were prepared through silanization using 3-(Trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TMSPMA) as coupling agents and ZnO or SiO as pristine NPs (pNPs), respectively. The Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses revealed the presence of appropriate organic components in both the ZnO and SiO aNPs, which verified the success of the silanization process. As compared with the pristine and conventional pNP-blended membranes, both the ZnO aNP-blended and SiO aNP-blended membranes with proper silanization (100% and 200% w/w) achieved a significantly increased blending efficiency with more NPs scattering on the internal and external membrane surfaces under scanning electron microscope observation. This improvement contributed to the increase of membrane hydrophilicity. Nevertheless, an extra dosage of the TMSPMA led to an encasement of NPs, thereby adversely affecting the properties of the resultant membranes. On the basis of all the tests, 100% (w/w) was selected as the optimum TMSPMA dosage for blending modification for both the ZnO and SiO types.

关键词: Membrane modification     Nanoparticle     Hydrophilic     Amphiphilic     Blending    

Radiative properties of materials with surface scattering or volume scattering: A review

Qunzhi ZHU, Hyunjin LEE, Zhuomin M. HANG

《能源前沿(英文)》 2009年 第3卷 第1期   页码 60-79 doi: 10.1007/s11708-009-0011-3

摘要: Radiative properties of rough surfaces, particulate media and porous materials are important in thermal engineerit transfer between surfaces and volume elements in participating media, as well as for accurate radiometric temperature measurements. In this paper, recent research on scattering of thermal radiation by rough surfaces, fibrous insulation, soot, aerogel, biological materials, and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was reviewed. Both theoretical modeling and experimental investigation are discussed. Rigorous solutions and approximation methods for surface scattering and volume scattering are described. The approach of using measured surface roughness statistics in Monte Carlo simulations to predict radiative properties of rough surfaces is emphasized. The effects of various parameters on the radiative properties of particulate media and porous materials are summarized.

关键词: aerogel     fiber     particle scattering     radiative properties     soot     surface roughness    

Fractal characteristic evaluation and interpolation reconstruction for surface topography of drilled

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第16卷 第4期   页码 840-854 doi: 10.1007/s11465-021-0643-5

摘要: In this paper, an improved fractal interpolation model is proposed to reconstruct the surface topography of composite hole wall. This model adopts the maximum positive deviations and maximum negative deviations between the measured values and trend values to determine the contraction factors. Hole profiles in 24 directions are measured. Fractal parameters are calculated to evaluate the measured surface profiles. The maximum and minimum fractal dimension of the hole wall are 1.36 and 1.07, whereas the maximum and minimum fractal roughness are 4.05 × 10 −5 and 4.36 × 10 −10 m, respectively. Based on the two-dimensional evaluation results, three-dimensional surface topographies in five typical angles (0°, 45°, 90°, 135°, and 165°) are reconstructed using the improved model. Fractal parameter D s and statistical parameters Sa, Sq, and Sz are used to evaluate the reconstructed surfaces. Average error of D s, Sa, Sq, and Sz between the measured surfaces and the reconstructed surfaces are 1.53%, 3.60%, 5.60%, and 9.47%, respectively. Compared with the model in published literature, the proposed model has equal reconstruction effect in relatively smooth surface and is more advanced in relatively rough surface. Comparative results prove that the proposed model for calculating contraction factors is more reasonable.

关键词: surface topography     fractal evaluation     fractal interpolation     reconstruction     composite    

Enhanced photocatalytic water splitting with surface defective SrTiO

Junying LIU, Zhidong WEI, Wenfeng SHANGGUAN

《能源前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第1期   页码 700-709 doi: 10.1007/s11708-021-0735-2

摘要: Surface reconstructed SrTiO nanocrystals were synthesized by a thermal treatment process in presence of NaBH and SrTiO nanocrystals. The surface reconstruction of SrTiO nanocrystals is attributed to the introduction of surface oxygen vacancies or Ti sites (such as Ti and Ti ) during the hydrogenation treatment process. The light absorption and the charge transfer ability of SrTiO nanocrystals are simultaneously enhanced due to surface oxygen vacancies or Ti sites (such as Ti and Ti ), which are beneficial to photocatalytic water splitting. Meanwhile, these defects also change the redox potential of the photocatalysts. Since there existed a synergistic effect between the three, the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen production was also regulated.

关键词: SrTiO3     surface reconstruction     oxygen vacancies     photocatalytic water splitting    

Dynamic visco-plastic memorial nested yield surface model of soil

ZHUANG Haiyang, CHEN Guoxing, ZHU Dinghua

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2008年 第2卷 第1期   页码 49-55 doi: 10.1007/s11709-008-0003-0

摘要: Under cyclic loadings, the plastic strain of soft soil will take place under very small shear strain. So the visco-plastic model is appropriate to be used to model the dynamic characteristics of soft soil. Based on the principles of geotechnical plastic mechanics, the incremental visco-plastic memorial nested yield surface model is developed by using the field theory of nonlinear isotropic materials and the theory of kinematical hardening modulus. At the end of anyone time increment, the inverted loading surface, the damaged surface and the initial loading surface which is tangent with the inside of inverted loading surface are memorized respectively. The kinematical behavior of yield surface is defined by using these three surfaces. The developed model in this paper is successfully implemented in ABAQUS using FORTRAN subroutine. The predicted stress-strain relationships of soft soil are compared with the test results given by dynamic triaxial tests. It is proved that the cyclic undrained stress-strain relation of soils can be fairly simulated by the model. At last, the nonlinear earthquake response of a representative soft site in Nanjing city is calculated with the dynamic behavior of soils modeled by the new developed model. The results are accordant to the earthquake response of soft site given by other scholars.

关键词: developed     dynamic     surface     inverted     appropriate    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Performance of ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) with different surface roughening methods

Ning JIN, Bangfeng WANG, Kan BIAN, Qi CHEN, Ke XIONG,

期刊论文

Kinetic roughening transition and missing regime transition of melt crystallized polybutene-1 tetragonal

Motoi YAMASHITA

期刊论文

Cell surface protein engineering for high-performance whole-cell catalysts

Hajime Nakatani,Katsutoshi Hori

期刊论文

An Exploration of Surface Integrity Remanufacturing for Aeroengine Components

Qiao Xiang,Yong He,Ting-hong Hou

期刊论文

Review on mechanism and process of surface polishing using lasers

Arun KRISHNAN, Fengzhou FANG

期刊论文

Tribological study on the surface modification of metal-on-polymer bioimplants

期刊论文

Development of surface reconstruction algorithms for optical interferometric measurement

Dongxu WU, Fengzhou FANG

期刊论文

Hysteretic behavior of cambered surface steel tube damper: Theoretical and experimental research

期刊论文

Materials and surface engineering to control bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation: A review of recent

Huan GU, Dacheng REN

期刊论文

Dynamic response surface methodology using Lasso regression for organic pharmaceutical synthesis

期刊论文

Improved blending strategy for membrane modification by virtue of surface segregation using surface-tailored

Shuai Liang, Peng Gao, Xiaoqi Gao, Kang Xiao, Xia Huang

期刊论文

Radiative properties of materials with surface scattering or volume scattering: A review

Qunzhi ZHU, Hyunjin LEE, Zhuomin M. HANG

期刊论文

Fractal characteristic evaluation and interpolation reconstruction for surface topography of drilled

期刊论文

Enhanced photocatalytic water splitting with surface defective SrTiO

Junying LIU, Zhidong WEI, Wenfeng SHANGGUAN

期刊论文

Dynamic visco-plastic memorial nested yield surface model of soil

ZHUANG Haiyang, CHEN Guoxing, ZHU Dinghua

期刊论文