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High-entropy catalysts for electrochemical water-electrolysis of hydrogen evolution and oxygen evolution

《能源前沿(英文)》 doi: 10.1007/s11708-023-0892-6

摘要: High entropy materials (HEMs) have developed rapidly in the field of electrocatalytic water-electrolysis for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) due to their unique properties. In particular, HEM catalysts are composed of many elements. Therefore, they have rich active sites and enhanced entropy stability relative to single atoms. In this paper, the preparation strategies and applications of HEM catalysts in electrochemical water-electrolysis are reviewed to explore the stabilization of HEMs and their catalytic mechanisms as well as their application in support green hydrogen production. First, the concept and four characteristics of HEMs are introduced based on entropy and composition. Then, synthetic strategies of HEM catalysts are systematically reviewed in terms of the categories of bottom-up and top-down. The application of HEMs as catalysts for electrochemical water-electrolysis in recent years is emphatically discussed, and the mechanisms of improving the performance of electrocatalysis is expounded by combining theoretical calculation technology and ex-situ/in situ characterization experiments. Finally, the application prospect of HEMs is proposed to conquer the challenges in HEM catalyst fabrications and applications.

关键词: high-entropy     electrocatalysis     synthetic methods     water-electrolysis     hydrogen and oxygen evolutions    

Energy supply for water electrolysis systems using wind and solar energy to produce hydrogen: a case

Mostafa REZAEI, Ali MOSTAFAEIPOUR, Mojtaba QOLIPOUR, Mozhgan MOMENI

《能源前沿(英文)》 2019年 第13卷 第3期   页码 539-550 doi: 10.1007/s11708-019-0635-x

摘要: Due to acute problems caused by fossil fuels that threaten the environment, conducting research on other types of energy carriers that are clean and renewable is of great importance. Since in the past few years hydrogen has been introduced as the future fuel, the aim of this study is to evaluate wind and solar energy potentials in prone areas of Iran by the Weibull distribution function (WDF) and the Angstrom-Prescott (AP) equation for hydrogen production. To this end, the meteorological data of solar radiation and wind speed recorded at 10 m height in the time interval of 3 h in a five-year period have been used. The findings indicate that Manjil and Zahedan with yearly wind and solar energy densities of 6004 (kWh/m ) and 2247 (kWh/m ), respectively, have the greatest amount of energy among the other cities. After examining three different types of commercial wind turbines and photovoltaic (PV) systems, it becomes clear that by utilizing one set of Gamesa G47 turbine, 91 kg/d of hydrogen, which provides energy for 91 car/week, can be produced in Manjil and will save about 1347 L of gasoline in the week. Besides, by installing one thousand sets of X21-345 PV systems in Zahedan, 20 kg/d of hydrogen, enough for 20 cars per week, can be generated and 296 L of gasoline can be saved. Finally, the RETScreen software is used to calculate the annual CO emission reduction after replacing gasoline with the produced hydrogen.

关键词: wind energy     solar energy     water electrolysis     hydrogen production     Weibull distribution function (WDF)     Angstrom-Prescott (AP) equation    

电化学氢-水转化系统中电解水和氢燃料电池催化剂的设计 Review

彭立山, 魏子栋

《工程(英文)》 2020年 第6卷 第6期   页码 653-679 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2019.07.028

摘要:

在当前的能源需求和气候变化的背景下,可持续能源系统的研究已取得实质性进展。氢-水电化学转化是一种理想的、无化石原料使用的可持续能源系统。然而,该能源系统中两种核心技术的能量转换,即电解水和燃料电池,仍有很大的改进空间。本文分析了氢-水能源系统中电解水和燃料电池的能量耗散,并讨论了在催化剂表面发生的涉及氢-氧反应的主要障碍。通过反应性中间体与表观催化性能之间的标度关系,本文总结了催化活性趋势的框架,为高活性氢-氧反应电催化剂的设计提供了思路。文中介绍了一系列基于催化性能的结构工程方法(包括纳米结构化、晶面工程、相工程、非晶化、缺陷工程、元素掺杂、界面工程和合金化)及其应用,着重介绍从以往的理论和实验研究中得到的合理指导,并概述了电化学氢-水转化系统中的关键科学问题,提出了开发具有高能量转化率的催化剂的研究方向。

关键词: 可再生能源系统     氢–水电化学循环     电催化     电催化剂工程     结构设计     水电解     燃料电池    

电解水制氢技术研究进展与发展建议

俞红梅,邵志刚,侯明,衣宝廉,段方维,杨滢璇

《中国工程科学》 2021年 第23卷 第2期   页码 146-152 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2021.02.020

摘要:

随着日益增长的低碳减排需求,氢的绿色制取技术受到广泛重视,利用可再生能源进行电解水制氢是目前众多氢气来源方案中碳排放最低的工艺。本文梳理了氢能需求和规划的进展、电解水制氢的示范项目情况,重点分析了电解水制氢技术,涵盖技术分类、碱水制氢应用、质子交换膜(PEM)电解水制氢。研究认为,提升电催化剂活性、提高膜电极中催化剂的利用率、改善双极板表面处理工艺、优化电解槽结构,有助于提高 PEM 电解槽的性能并降低设备成本; PEM 电解水制氢技术的运行电流密度高、能耗低、产氢压力高,适应可再生能源发电的波动性特征、易于与可再生能源消纳相结合,是电解水制氢的适宜方案。结合氢储运与电解制氢的技术特征研判、我国输氢需求,提出发展建议:利用西北、西南、东北等区域丰富的可再生能源,通过电解水制氢产生高压氢;氢送入天然气管网,然后在用氢端从天然气管道取气、重整制氢,由此构成绿色制氢与长距离输送的系统解决方案。

关键词: 电解水制氢     可再生能源     质子交换膜电解水制氢     绿氢     长距离输送    

电解制氢与氢储能

俞红梅, 衣宝廉

《中国工程科学》 2018年 第20卷 第3期   页码 58-65 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2018.03.009

摘要:

电解水制氢技术在直流电的作用下,将水分解为纯氢和纯氧。氢作为能源载体,可实现无碳能源的循环利用,可以将波动性的可再生能源电力通过“电–氢–电(或化工原料)”的方式加以高效利用,兼具绿色与高效的特点,为未来人类社会的能源转化利用提出了新的解决方案。本文基于氢储能的理念,介绍了电解制氢的技术特点,概括了国内外近期质子交换膜水电解技术的发展态势,分析了新型电解水技术的发展方向,并提出了我国未来发展电解制氢技术与氢储能的建议。

关键词: 电解水     制氢     氢储能     可再生能源    

固体氧化物电解池共电解H2O/CO2研究进展

范慧,宋世栋,韩敏芳

《中国工程科学》 2013年 第15卷 第2期   页码 107-112

摘要:

固体氧化物电解池(SOEC)作为一种新的能源利用方式,可以将电能转化为化学能,具有高效、洁净、环保等优点。本文介绍了固体氧化物电解池的结构特点及其用于H2O/CO2的共电解制备H2和CO的工作原理,综述了固体氧化物电解池的组成形式,以及单片电解池和电解池堆用于H2O/CO2共电解反应的国内外研究进展,并阐述了提高固体氧化物电解池共电解效率所亟需解决的问题。

关键词: 固体氧化物电解池     H2O/CO2共电解     合成气     电解效率     水电解    

Polysulfone and zirconia composite separators for alkaline water electrolysis

Li XU, Wei LI, Yan YOU, Shaoxing ZHANG, Yingchun ZHAO

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2013年 第7卷 第2期   页码 154-161 doi: 10.1007/s11705-013-1331-8

摘要: The novel composite separators composed of polysulfone and zirconia were prepared by phase inversion precipitation technique. This technique allows pre-evaporation time and extraction temperature to be varied in order to obtain optimal performances of the separators. In order to evaluate practical applicability of those composite separators, a small-scale electrolysis experimental apparatus was used to investigate the changes of cell voltage, gas purity and separator stability. The results revealed a decreased cell voltage compared to the conventional asbestos separators, and the gas purity and separator stability met the requirements for industrial use.

关键词: phase inversion     separator     alkaline water electrolysis     mechanical and chemical stability    

The world’s first offshore wind power non-desalination of seawater electrolysis for hydrogen production

《能源前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第3期   页码 317-319 doi: 10.1007/s11708-023-0888-2

摘要: The world’s first offshore wind power non-desalination of seawater electrolysis for hydrogen production successfully tested in Fujian, China

关键词: China     wind power non    

4 nanoparticles-anchored porous carbon nanofibers as bifunctional electrocatalyst for overall water

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第11期   页码 1707-1717 doi: 10.1007/s11705-023-2308-x

摘要: Water electrolysis technology is considered to be one of the most promising means to produce hydrogen. Herein, aiming at the problems of high overpotential and slow kinetics in water splitting, N-doped porous carbon nanofibers-coupled CoNi2S4 nanoparticles are prepared as bifunctional electrocatalyst. In the strategy, NaCl is used as the template to prepare porous carbon nanofibers with a large surface area, and sulfur vacancies are created to modulate the electronic structure of CoNi2S4. Electron spin resonance confirms the formation of abundant sulfur vacancies, which largely reduce the bandgap of CoNi2S4 from 1.68 to 0.52 eV. The narrowed bandgap is conducive to the migration of valence electrons and decreases the charge transfer resistance for electrocatalytic reaction. Moreover, the uniform distribution of CoNi2S4 nanoparticles on carbon nanofibers can prevent the aggregation and facilitate the exposure of electrochemical active sites. Therefore, the composite catalyst exhibits low overpotentials of 340 mV@100 mA·cm–2 for oxygen evolution reaction and 380 mV@100 mA·cm–2 for hydrogen evolution reaction. The assembled electrolyzer requires 1.64 V to achieve 10 mA·cm–2 for overall water-splitting with good long-term stability. The excellent performance results from the synergistic effect of porous structures, sulfur deficiency, nitrogen doping, and the well-dispersed active component.

关键词: nanoparticle     sulfur vacancy     porous carbon nanofiber     transition metal sulfides     electrolysis    

风光波动电源下质子交换膜电解水制氢技术发展与应用

丁历威 ,彭笑东 ,侯继彪 2,康伟 ,吕洪坤 ,章康 ,侯成龙

《中国工程科学》 2023年 第25卷 第6期   页码 237-247 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2023.06.020

摘要:

发展具有波动性负荷跟随能力的质子交换膜(PEM)电解水技术,是实现可再生能源耦合电解水制氢、促进可再生能源消纳的有效途径。本文梳理了风电耦合制氢、光伏发电耦合制氢等可再生电力制氢场景,分析了可再生能源的波动特性;从风光波动电源对电解池影响显著、风光波动电源加速电解池部件衰减、风光波动电源模拟方式三方面,详细阐述了PEM电解水制氢的基本特性以及研究进展;进一步讨论了PEM电解槽技术研发、PEM电解槽制氢技术发展方向。在把握风光耦合制氢现状及经济性、明晰风光波动电源电解水制氢产业应用态势的基础上,提出了深化研究高效电解池的基础科学问题和核心部件、进一步降低制氢成本、开展风光耦合制氢优化布局和制度保障研究等发展建议,以期促进可再生能源制氢产业的高质量发展。

关键词: 可再生电力;风光波动电源;电解水制氢;质子交换膜    

Microbial electrolysis cells with biocathodes and driven by microbial fuel cells for simultaneous enhanced

Jingya SHEN,Yuliang SUN,Liping HUANG,Jinhui YANG

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2015年 第9卷 第6期   页码 1084-1095 doi: 10.1007/s11783-015-0805-y

摘要: Cobalt and copper recovery from aqueous Co(II) and Cu(II) is one critical step for cobalt and copper wastewaters treatment. Previous tests have primarily examined Cu(II) and Co(II) removal in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) with abiotic cathodes and driven by microbial fuel cell (MFCs). However, Cu(II) and Co(II) removal rates were still slow. Here we report MECs with biocathodes and driven by MFCs where enhanced removal rates of 6.0±0.2 mg?L ?h for Cu(II) at an initial concentration of 50 mg?L and 5.3±0.4 mg?L h for Co(II) at an initial 40 mg?L were achieved, 1.7 times and 3.3 times as high as those in MECs with abiotic cathodes and driven by MFCs. Species of Cu(II) was reduced to pure copper on the cathodes of MFCs whereas Co(II) was removed associated with microorganisms on the cathodes of the connected MECs. Higher Cu(II) concentrations and smaller working volumes in the cathode chambers of MFCs further improved removal rates of Cu(II) (115.7 mg?L ?h ) and Co(II) (6.4 mg?L ?h ) with concomitantly achieving hydrogen generation (0.05±0.00 mol?mol COD). Phylogenetic analysis on the biocathodes indicates dominantly accounted for 67.9% of the total reads, followed by (14.0%), (6.1%), (2.5%), (1.4%), and (1.0%). This study provides a beneficial attempt to achieve simultaneous enhanced Cu(II) and Co(II) removal, and efficient Cu(II) and Co(II) wastewaters treatment without any external energy consumption.

关键词: biocathode     microbial electrolysis cell     microbial fuel cell     Cu(II) removal     Co(II) removal    

非并网风电电解水制氢系统及应用研究

颜卓勇,孔祥威

《中国工程科学》 2015年 第17卷 第3期   页码 30-29

摘要:

2013年中国风电新增装机容量为16.1 GW,累计装机容量为91.42 GW,两项指标均居世界第一,却有大量风机不能并网发电。当前,并网难已成为我国大规模风电发展中的突出问题。非并网风电是指风电系统的终端负荷不再是传统的单一电网,而是通过必要的技术创新与集成,直接应用于一系列能适应风电特性的高载能产业及其他特殊领域。在江苏大丰市建成日产120 Nm3非并网风电电解水制氢系统示范工程。该系统利用1台30 kW风机和1台10 kW风机共同给电解水制氢装置供电,采用非并网风电供电模式,风电联网不并网,消除了风电对电网的冲击,实现风电100 %高效、低成本利用。该系统的研究可以揭示风电与电解水制氢工艺之间的耦合规律。

关键词: 非并网;风电;电解水制氢    

High-gravity intensified iron-carbon micro-electrolysis for degradation of dinitrotoluene

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第10期   页码 1595-1605 doi: 10.1007/s11705-022-2204-9

摘要: The application of iron–carbon (Fe–C) micro-electrolysis to wastewater treatment is limited by the passivation potential of the Fe–C packing. In order to address this problem, high-gravity intensified Fe–C micro-electrolysis was proposed in this study for degradation of dinitrotoluene wastewater in a rotating packed bed (RPB) using commercial Fe–C particles as the packing. The effects of reaction time, high-gravity factor, liquid flow rate and initial solution pH were investigated. The degradation intermediates were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the possible degradation pathways of nitro compounds by Fe–C micro-electrolysis in RPB were also proposed. It is found that under optimal conditions, the removal rate of nitro compounds reaches 68.4% at 100 min. The removal rate is maintained at approximately 68% after 4 cycles in RPB, but it is decreased substantially from 57.9% to 36.8% in a stirred tank reactor. This is because RPB can increase the specific surface area and the renewal of the liquid–solid interface, and as a result the degradation efficiency of Fe–C micro-electrolysis is improved and the active sites on the Fe–C surface can be regenerated for continuous use. In conclusion, high-gravity intensified Fe–C micro-electrolysis can weaken the passivation of Fe–C particles and extend their service life.

关键词: high-gravity technology     rotating packed bed     Fe–C micro-electrolysis     dinitrotoluene wastewater     active sites    

矿浆电解过程的浸出机理

杨显万,张英杰,邓纶浩,邱定蕃

《中国工程科学》 2000年 第2卷 第6期   页码 49-51

摘要:

介绍了高铅铜型难处理金矿矿浆电解浸出机理的研究结果。金精矿在矿浆电解时,铅的浸出可通过化学溶解、化学氧化、阳极氧化三种途径;铅浸出的主要途径是靠化学溶解,矿粒与阳极接触而被氧化对浸出的贡献不大。

关键词: 矿浆电解     浸出     机理    

Plasma spray coating on interconnector toward promoted solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide electrolysis

《能源前沿(英文)》 doi: 10.1007/s11708-023-0901-9

摘要: Interconnector is a critical component to construct solid oxide cells (SOCs) stack. Oxidation of metallic interconnectors and Cr poisoning caused by oxidation are important factors that lead to long-term performance degradation of SOCs. Coating on the interconnector surface is an important approach to inhibit the oxidation and Cr migration of the interconnector. Herein, (La0.75Sr0.25)0.95MnO3–δ (LSM) and Mn1.5Co1.5O4 (MCO) are used to fabricate the coatings of interconnector. Two advanced thermal spray technology, atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) and low-pressure plasma spray (LPPS), are adopted for the coating preparation. The electrochemical performance, rising and cooling cycle stability, and Cr diffusion inhibition performance of the coatings are tested and evaluated. The result indicates that MCO can generate more uniform and denser coatings than LSM. In addition, MCO coatings prepared by LPPS shows the best electrochemical performance, rising and cooling cycle stability, and Cr diffusion inhibition. The initial area specific resistance (ASR) is 0.0027 Ω·cm2 at 800 °C. After 4 cooling cycle tests, the ASR increases to 0.0032 Ω·cm2 but lower than other samples. Meanwhile, the relative intense of Cr at the interface of SUS430 with MCO coatings fabricated by LPPS is lower than that of MCO fabricated by APS after 4 rising and cooling cycle operations, showing more favorable Cr diffusion inhibition performance.

关键词: interconnector coating     plasma spray     electrochemical performance     Cr diffusion inhibition     solid oxide cells (SOCs)    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

High-entropy catalysts for electrochemical water-electrolysis of hydrogen evolution and oxygen evolution

期刊论文

Energy supply for water electrolysis systems using wind and solar energy to produce hydrogen: a case

Mostafa REZAEI, Ali MOSTAFAEIPOUR, Mojtaba QOLIPOUR, Mozhgan MOMENI

期刊论文

电化学氢-水转化系统中电解水和氢燃料电池催化剂的设计

彭立山, 魏子栋

期刊论文

电解水制氢技术研究进展与发展建议

俞红梅,邵志刚,侯明,衣宝廉,段方维,杨滢璇

期刊论文

电解制氢与氢储能

俞红梅, 衣宝廉

期刊论文

固体氧化物电解池共电解H2O/CO2研究进展

范慧,宋世栋,韩敏芳

期刊论文

Polysulfone and zirconia composite separators for alkaline water electrolysis

Li XU, Wei LI, Yan YOU, Shaoxing ZHANG, Yingchun ZHAO

期刊论文

The world’s first offshore wind power non-desalination of seawater electrolysis for hydrogen production

期刊论文

4 nanoparticles-anchored porous carbon nanofibers as bifunctional electrocatalyst for overall water

期刊论文

风光波动电源下质子交换膜电解水制氢技术发展与应用

丁历威 ,彭笑东 ,侯继彪 2,康伟 ,吕洪坤 ,章康 ,侯成龙

期刊论文

Microbial electrolysis cells with biocathodes and driven by microbial fuel cells for simultaneous enhanced

Jingya SHEN,Yuliang SUN,Liping HUANG,Jinhui YANG

期刊论文

非并网风电电解水制氢系统及应用研究

颜卓勇,孔祥威

期刊论文

High-gravity intensified iron-carbon micro-electrolysis for degradation of dinitrotoluene

期刊论文

矿浆电解过程的浸出机理

杨显万,张英杰,邓纶浩,邱定蕃

期刊论文

Plasma spray coating on interconnector toward promoted solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide electrolysis

期刊论文